In this work, we report the synthesis of all-conjugated donor-acceptor block copolymers via a externally initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation (KCTP) method. In the first step, electron acceptor blocks, poly(naphthalene diimide)s (PNDIs), were prepared via the Stille coupling polycondensation. Then, P3HT blocks were polymerized by KCTP initiated by Ni(COD)2 activated PNDI complexes. Therefore, a series of ABA (P3HTs were initiated from both ends of PNDI) and AB-type (P3HT was initiated from one end of PNDI) block copolymers were successfully synthesized. Before fabrication of all-polymer solar cells, the morphologies and crystalline behaviors of the block copolymers were extensively investigated as a function of thermal annealing and the main chain composition of PNDI block. As a control, the crystalline behaviors of the physical blends of P3HT and PNDIs were also reported. Finally, all-polymer solar cells were fabricated by using the block copolymers as the single active component or as surfactants. A PCE of 0.11 % with Voc=0.46 V, Jsc=0.50 mA/cm2, and FF=0.46 was recorded by using the donor-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymer as the single active component.