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Perturbation of Copper Substitutional Defect Concentrations in CdS/CdTe Heterojunction Solar Cell Devices

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

D. Albin
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
R. Dhere
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
X. Wu
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
T. Gessert
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
M.J. Romero
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
Y. Yan
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
S. Asher
Affiliation:
National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO 80401, USA
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Abstract

The efficacy of implementing terrestrial-based photovoltaics is dictated by trade-offs in device performance, cost, and reliability. Presently, the highest efficiency polycrystalline CdS/CdTe superstrate solar cells utilize back contacts containing copper as an intentional dopant. Accelerated stress data correlates copper diffusion from this contact with performance degradation. Degradation at the device level exhibits two characteristic modes that are influenced by CdTe surface treatments prior to contacting. Rapid degradation associated with a rapidly decreasing open-circuit voltage can occur in cases where processing favors stoichiometric CdTe surfaces. Slower degradation associated with roll-over is typified by treatments favoring the presence of Te at the back contact. The chemical composition and extent of Te-rich contact interfaces is revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of NP etched and non-etched devices show Te-rich conditions are necessary for the detection of deep-acceptor CuCd defect levels at (Ev +0.28 to 0.34 eV). Low keV cathodoluminescence measurements show that these defects can be found localized at the back surface of CdS/CdTe devices.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2002

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