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Optimizing sulfurisation conditions in the fabrication of Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layers from electroplated precursors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Jonathan James Scragg
Affiliation:, University of Bath, Chemsitry, Bath, United Kingdom
Daniel Wolverson
Affiliation:, University of Bath, Physics, Bath, United Kingdom
Guillaume Zoppi
Affiliation:, Northumbria University, Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Laurence M Peter
Affiliation:, University of Bath, Chemsitry, Bath, United Kingdom
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Using direct photoelectrochemical measurement of the photocurrent obtained from Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layers made by a two-stage electroplating-sulfurisation process, the influence of processing conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) on material quality was investigated with a view to understanding the long sulfurisation times usually found in the literature. The improvement in photocurrent due to KCN etching was also studied, and seems to be due both to removal of surface phases and also slower etching of the bulk material. The optimum sulfurisation time was found to be around 50 minutes, despite evidence that sulfur incorporation and phase formation are complete within 5 minutes. Slow grain growth was suggested as a rate-limiting factor, and a rate constant was derived based on a simple model.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2010

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