Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78bd46657c-lfkwv Total loading time: 0.394 Render date: 2021-05-09T02:57:10.343Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

On the Sol-gel Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 May 2011

Varun Chaudhary
Affiliation:
Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India
Amit K. Srivastava
Affiliation:
Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India
Jitendra Kumar
Affiliation:
Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by sol-gel process using titanium isopropoxide as a precursor with ethanol and water as solvents. The synthesis involves gel formation, digestion for 24h, drying at 100oC for 10h, and calcination in air at 500-800oC for 2h. The resulting powder has been studied with respect to phase(s), morphology, optical absorption and photo -luminescence (PL) behaviour. The calcination of dried sol-gel product at 500oC for 2h leads to formation of anatase phase that possesses a tetragonal structure (a = 3.785 Å, c = 9.514 Å, Z = 4), average crystallite size ~ 11 nm and band gap of 3.34 eV. Further, increasing the time (t) of calcination causes crystallite growth that follows the relation d = α – β exp (-t/τ), α = 18.1 nm, β = 9.6 nm and τ = 6.9h. However, calcination of sol-gel product at 800oC for 2h gives rise to a rutile phase (tetragonal a = 4.593Å, c = 2.959Å, Z = 2), average crystallite size ~ 25 nm and band gap of 3.02 eV. The anatase phase exhibits strong PL emission peaks (excitation wavelength 405 nm) at 2.06 and 1.99 eV due to defect levels within the energy band gap. This observation has been attributed to finite size effects occurring in nanoparticles.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Hoffmann, M. R., Martin, S. T., Choi, W., and Bahnemann, D. W., Chem. Rev. 95, 69–96 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2. Pierre, A. C., Ceramic Bulletin 70, 1281–1288 (1991).Google Scholar
3. Diebold, U., Surface Science Reports 48, 53–229 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Kingon, A. I., Maris, J. P. and Steiffer, S. K., Nature (London) 406, 1032 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Muscat, J., Swamy, V. and Harrism, N. M., Physical Review B 65, 224112–15 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Ohkoshi, S., Tsunobuchi, Y., Matsuda, T., Hashimoto, K., Namai, A., Hakoe, F. and Tokoro, H., Nature Chemistry 2, 539–545 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Grätzel, M.. J. Photochem Photobio. A Chem, 164, 3–14 (2004); C R Chimie 9, 578–83 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Hagfeldt, A. and Grätzel, M., Acc. Chem Res 33, 269–77 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Park, N.G., van de Lagemaat, J. and Frank, A. J., J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 8989–8994 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10. Wang, W., Gu, B. H., Liang, L. Y., Hamilton, W. A. and Wesolowski, D.J., J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 14789–92 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Bhanwala, A. K., Kumar, A., Mishra, D. P. and Kumar, J., Aerosol Science 40, 720–730 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Wang, C. C., Zhang, Z. and Ying, J.Y., Nano Structured Mater. 9, 583 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. Chowdhury, A. and Kumar, J., Mater. Sci. Technol. 22, 1249–1254 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14. Amlouk, A., Mir, L., Kraiem, S. and Alaya, S., J. Phys. and Chem. of Solids 67, 1464–68 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15. Spurr, R. A. and Myers, H.. Anal. Chem. 29, 760, (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16. Kitazawa, S., Choi, Y. and Yamamoto, S., Vacuum 74, 637 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Madhu Kumar, P., Badrinarayanan, S., Sastry, Murali, Thin solid films 358, 122–130, (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Jin, Y., Li, G., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, L., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 37–40 (2002)Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

On the Sol-gel Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

On the Sol-gel Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

On the Sol-gel Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *