Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wzw2p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-20T10:21:38.054Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Modeling of Cu Surface Precipitation and Out-Diffusion from Silicon Wafers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Hsiu-Wu Guo
Affiliation:, University of Washington, Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Dept. of Electrical Engineering,, Paul Allen Center - Room AE100R, Seattle, WA, 98195-2500, United States, (206)616-4450
Scott T. Dunham
Affiliation:, University of Washington, Electrical Engineering, Seattle, WA, 98195-2500, United States
Get access


Copper is one of the most concerned contaminants for silicon process, due to its detrimental effects on device performance if present in active regions. Gettering of Cu by changing the surface conditions at the wafer surface is commonly used. Acceleration of Cu out-diffusion and surface precipitation was observed with changes of the surface potential, which could be altered by both existing Cu precipitates and organics at the surface. In this work, physically based models are developed to describe the Cu evolution at the wafer surface including the dependence of surface potential. These models are verified by comparison to the experiment measurements from Ohkubo et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 44, 3793 (2005)].

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2007

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1. Ohkubo, Y., Matsumoto, K., and Nagai, K., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3793 (2005).Google Scholar
2. McCarthy, C., Miyazaki, M., Horie, H., Okamoto, S. and Tsuya, H., edited by Huff, H.R., Gösele, U. and Tsuya, H. (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1998), p629.Google Scholar
3. Shabani, M.B., Okuuchi, S. and Shimanuki, Y., in Analytical and Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials, Devices and Processes, edited by Kolbesen, B. O., Claeys, C., Stallhofer, P., Tardif, F., Benton, J.L., Rai-Choudhury, P., Shaffner, T.J., Shroder, D.K. and Tajima, M. (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1999), 510.Google Scholar
4. Thompson, R.D. and Tu, K. N., Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 440 (1982).Google Scholar
5. Hall, R. and Racette, J., J. Appl. Phys. 35, 379 (1964).Google Scholar
6. Meek, R.L. and Seidel, T., J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 731 (1975).Google Scholar
7. Wagner, P., Hage, H., Prigge, H., Prescha, T., and Weber, J., in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Silicon Materials Science and Technology: Semiconductor Silicon 1990, edited by Huff, H., Barraclough, K., and Chikawa, J. I. (Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1990), 675.Google Scholar
8. Dunham, S.T., J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 2823 (1995).Google Scholar
9. Guo, H.-W. and Dunham, S.T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182106 (2006).Google Scholar
10. Dunham, S.T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 464 (1993).Google Scholar