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Microstructure and Texture of Electroplated Copper in Damascene Structures

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2011

M. E. Gross
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
C. Lingk
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
T. Siegrist
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
E. Coleman
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
W. L. Brown
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
K. Ueno
Affiliation:
ULSI Device Development Laboratories, NEC Inc. Sagamihara, Japan
Y. Tsuchiya
Affiliation:
ULSI Device Development Laboratories, NEC Inc. Sagamihara, Japan
N. Itoh
Affiliation:
ULSI Device Development Laboratories, NEC Inc. Sagamihara, Japan
T. Ritzdorf
Affiliation:
Semitool, Kalispell.
J. Turner
Affiliation:
Semitool, Kalispell.
K. Gibbons
Affiliation:
Semitool, Kalispell.
E. Klawuhn
Affiliation:
T; Novellus Thin Film Systems, Palo Alto, CA
M. Biberger
Affiliation:
T; Novellus Thin Film Systems, Palo Alto, CA
W. Y. C. Lai
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
J. F. Miner
Affiliation:
Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974
G. Wu
Affiliation:
Rodel, Inc., Newark, DE
F. Zhang
Affiliation:
Rodel, Inc., Newark, DE
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Abstract

The transition from Al to Cu for advanced ULSI interconnects involves changes in architecture and deposition technique that will influence the microstructure and texture of the metal. Cu interconnects are typically formed within the confines of pre-patterned trenches and vias using an electroplating process with a sputtered Cu conduction layer deposited over a refractory metalbased diffusion barrier layer. In this paper, we focus on the influence of the barrier layer (PVD Ti/TiN, Ta, TaN, CVD TiN) and the effect of a vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer depositions, on the texture of the Cu lines, as examined by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis.

A preferred (111) orientation was observed for all samples. The samples with no vacuum break between barrier and conduction layer deposition exhibited in plane anisotropy that was particularly pronounced for the Ta and TaN samples compared with the Ti/TiN sample. Focused ion beam images and transmission electron micrographs showed Cu grain size to be on the order of the trench width with a high degree of twinning, and no boundary could be distinguished between the PVD Cu conduction layer and the electroplated Cu.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1998

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References

1. Edelstein, D., Heidenreich, J., Goldblatt, R., Cote, W., Uzoh, C., Lustig, N., Roper, P., McDevitt, T., Motsiff, W., Simon, A., Dukovic, J., Wachnik, R., Rathore, H., Schulz, R., Su, L., Luce, S. and Slattery, J., IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Digest, 773 (1997).Google Scholar
2. Hsu, W.-Y., Hong, Q.-Z., Chen, L.-Y., Lu, Y.-C., Wilson, A., Cordasco, V., Jain, M., Tao, R., Luttmer, J.D., Havemann, R.H., Mosely, R., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 413419.Google Scholar
3. Gross, M.E., Siegrist, T., Marcus, M.A., Lai, W.Y.C., Ritzdorf, T., Turner, J., Gibbons, K., Biberger, M., Klawuhn, E., presented at Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 Conference (Oct. 1997, San Diego, CA) and unpublished results.Google Scholar
4. Ueno, K., Tsuchiya, Y., Itoh, N., Kikkawa, T., and Sekiguchi, A., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 489494.Google Scholar
5. Schulz, S.E., Baumann, J., Weidner, J.-O., Hasse, W., Koerner, H., and Gessner, T., Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1997 (Mater. Res. Soc., Warrendale, PA 1998), pp. 427435.Google Scholar
6. Lingk, C. and Gross, M.E., submitted for publication.Google Scholar

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