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High performance polymer/BaTiO3 nanocomposites based on surface-modified metal oxide nanoparticles using functional phosphonic acids for electronic applications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2011

Philseok Kim
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Natalie M. Doss
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
John P. Tillotson
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Xiao-Hong Zhang
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Simon C. Jones
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Peter J. Hotchkiss
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Jiangyu Li
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Stevens Way, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195, U.S.A.
Jeffrey P. Calame
Affiliation:
Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375, U.S.A.
Benoit Domercq
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Bernard Kippelen
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Seth R. Marder
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
Joseph W. Perry
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, U.S.A.
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Abstract

Polymer/ceramic nanocomposites provide a means of combining the high permittivities (ε r ) of metal oxide nanoparticles with the solution-processability and high dielectric strength of polymeric hosts. Simple mixing of nanoparticles and polymers generally results in poor quality nanocomposites due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles and poor miscibility of nanoparticles with host materials. We have shown that surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles with phosphonic acid-based ligands affords robust surface modification and improves the processiblity and the quality of the resulting nanocomposites. We report on the use of phosphonic-acid modified barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites and their applications to high-energy-density capacitors and solution-processable high permittivity gate insulators in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Surface modification of BT nanoparticles enabled the formation of high quality nanocomposite thin films with ferroelectric polymer hosts such as poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), P(VDF-HFP), with large volume fractions (up to 50 vol. %), which are potentially useful materials for electrical energy storage. Similarly, the use of phosphonic acid-modified BT nanoparticles in cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) allowed to form gate insulators for OFETs. High quality nanocomposite thin films at high nanoparticle volume fractions (up to 37 vol. %) with a large capacitance density (∼50 nF/cm2) and a low leakage current (10−8 A/cm2) were obtained. Pentacene-based p-type OFETs using these nanocomposites showed a large on/off current ratio (Ion/off 104 ∼ 106). We will also present the results from a recent experimental and theoretical study where the BT nanoparticle volume fraction was systematically varied in P(VDF-HFP) host, ε r = 11, to find the optimum permittivity and dielectric strength, which provided a guideline for the optimization of the volume fraction for achieving maximum energy density.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2009

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References

1. Kim, P., Jones, S. C., Hotchkiss, P. J., Haddock, J. N., Kippelen, B., Marder, S. R., and Perry, J. W., Adv. Mater. 19, 1001 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2. Kim, P., Zhang, X.-H., Domercq, B., Jones, S. C., Hotchkiss, P. J., Marder, S. R., Kippelen, B., and Perry, J. W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 013302 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Li, J. Y., Zhang, L., and Ducharme, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132901 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Calame, J. P., J. Appl. Phys, 99, 084101 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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High performance polymer/BaTiO3 nanocomposites based on surface-modified metal oxide nanoparticles using functional phosphonic acids for electronic applications
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