Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-4k54s Total loading time: 0.273 Render date: 2021-12-01T10:45:48.908Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Lithium-sulfur batteries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 May 2014

Linda F. Nazar
University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada;
Marine Cuisinier
University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Quan Pang
University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Get access


Markets for energy storage that go beyond portable electronics have emerged rapidly this decade, including powering electric vehicles and “leveling the grid” fed by renewable sources such as solar energy, which are intermittent in supply. These new demands require a significant step-up in energy density that will probably not be met by Li-ion batteries; estimates suggest they are starting to approach their theoretical limits. But in the world of “beyond Li-ion,” the options are limited. One of the most hopeful is the Li-S battery, for which greater energy storage can potentially be realized through phase-transformation chemistry using elemental sulfur as a positive electrode material, which converts to lithium sulfide. These future generation systems offer up to a five-fold increased specific energy and greatly reduced cost factors, but commercialization has been hindered owing to key challenges. Efforts over the last two years to better manipulate the cell chemistry and overcome these challenges are presented.

Research Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Yang, Z., Zhang, J., Kintner-Meyer, M.C., Lu, X., Choi, D., Lemmon, J.P., Liu, J., Chem. Rev. 111, 3577 (2011).CrossRef
Bruce, P.G., Freunberger, S.A., Hardwick, L.J., Tarascon, J.M., Nat. Mater. 11, 19 (2012).CrossRef
Goodenough, J.B., Park, K.-S., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 1167 (2013).CrossRef
Yamin, H., Peled, E., J. Power Sources 9, 281 (1983).CrossRef
Rauh, R.D., Abraham, K.M., Pearson, G.F., Surpenant, J.K., Brummer, S.B., J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 523 (1979).CrossRef
Ji, X., Nazar, L.F., J. Mater. Chem. 20, 9821 (2010).CrossRef
Evers, S., Nazar, L.F., Acc. Chem. Res. 46, 1135 (2013).CrossRef
Manthiram, A., Fu, Y., Su, Y.-S., Acc. Chem. Res. 46, 1125 (2013).CrossRef
Yin, Y.X., Xin, S., Guo, Y.G., Wan, L.J., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 13186 (2013).CrossRef
Yang, Y., Zheng, G., Cui, Y., Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 3018 (2013).CrossRef
Wang, D.-W., Zeng, Q., Zhou, G., Yin, L., Li, F., Cheng, H.-M., Gentle, I.R., Lu, G.Q.M., J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 9382 (2013).CrossRef
Hagen, M., Dörfler, S., Fanz, P., Berger, T., Speck, R., Tübke, J., Althues, H., Hoffmann, M.J., Scherr, C., Kaskel, S., J. Power Sources 224, 260 (2013).CrossRef
Yang, Y., Zheng, G., Cui, Y., Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 1552 (2013).CrossRef
Herbert, D., Ulam, D.J., US Patent 3043896 (1962).
Rao, M.L.B., US Patent 3,413,154 (1968).
Nole, D., Moss, V., US Patent 3532543 (1970).
Akridge, J.R., Mikhaylik, Y.V., White, N., Solid State Ionics 175, 243 (2004).CrossRef
Rauh, R.D., Shuker, F.S., Marston, J.M., Brummer, S.B., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 1761 (1977).CrossRef
Ryu, H.S., Ahn, H.J., Kim, K.W., Ahn, J.H., Lee, J.Y., Cairns, E.J., J. Power Sources 140, 365 (2005).CrossRef
Rao, B.M.L., Shropshire, J.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 942 (1981).CrossRef
Nelson, J., Misra, S., Yang, Y., Jackson, A., Liu, Y., Wang, H., Dai, H., Andrews, H., Cui, Y., Toney, M.F., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 6337 (2012).CrossRef
Diao, Y., Xie, K., Xiong, S., Hong, X.J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, A421 (2012).CrossRef
Barchasz, C., Lepêtre, J.-C., Alloin, F., Patoux, S., J. Power Sources 199, 322 (2011).CrossRef
Cheon, S.E., Ko, K.S., Cho, J.H., Kim, S.W., Chin, E.Y., Kim, H.T., J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A796 (2003).CrossRef
Demir-Cakan, R., Morcrette, M., Gangulibabu, A.G., Dedryvère, R., Tarascon, J.-M., Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 176 (2013).CrossRef
Fu, Y., Su, Y.S., Manthiram, A., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 6930 (2013).CrossRef
Abraham, K.M., Brummer, S.B., in Lithium Batteries, Gabano, J.P., Ed. (Academic Press, London, 1983), chap. 14.Google Scholar
Ding, F., Xu, W., Graff, G.L., Zhang, J., Sushko, M.L., Chen, X., Shao, Y., Engelhard, M.H., Nie, Z., Xiao, J., Li, X., Sushko, P.V., Liu, J., Zhang, J.-G., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 4450 (2013).CrossRef
Visco, S.J., Chu, M.Y., US Patent 6,210,832 (2001).
Zhang, T., Imanishi, N., Shimonishi, Y., Hirano, A., Xie, J., Takeda, Y., Yamamoto, O., Sammes, N., J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, A214 (2010).CrossRef
Murugan, R., Thangadurai, V., Weppner, W., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 7778 (2007).CrossRef
Knauth, P., Solid State Ionics 180, 911 (2009).CrossRef
Ohta, S., Kobayashi, T., Asaoka, T., J. Power Sources 196, 3342 (2011).CrossRef
Shinawi, E., Janek, J., J. Power Sources 225, 13 (2013).CrossRef
Mikhaylik, Y.V., US Patent 7,352,680 (2008).
Aurbach, D., Pollak, E., Elazari, R., Salitra, G., Kelley, C.S., Affinito, J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, A694 (2009).CrossRef
Hassoun, J., Scrosati, B., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 2371 (2010).CrossRef
Yang, Y., McDowell, M.T., Jackson, A., Cha, J.J., Hong, S.S., Cui, Y., Nano Lett. 10, 1486 (2010).CrossRef
Elazari, R., Salitra, G., Gershinsky, G., Garsuch, A., Panchenko, A., Aurbach, D., Electrochem. Commun. 14, 21 (2012).CrossRef
Brückner, J., Thieme, S., Böttger-Hiller, F., Bauer, I., Grossmann, H.T., Strubel, P., Althues, H., Spange, S., Kaskel, S., Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 (9), 1284 (2013).CrossRef
He, X., Ren, J., Wang, L., Pu, W., Jiang, C., Wan, C., J. Power Sources 190, 154 (2009).CrossRef
Elazari, R., Salitra, G., Talyosed, Y., Grinblat, J., Scordilis-Kelley, C., Xiao, A., Affinito, J., Aurbach, D., J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, A1131 (2010).CrossRef
Ji, X., Lee, K. T., Nazar, L.F., Nat. Mater. 8, 500 (2009).CrossRef
Ji, L., Rao, M., Zheng, H., Zhang, L., Li, Y., Duan, W., Guo, J., Cairns, E.J., Zhang, Y., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 18522 (2011).CrossRef
Lu, S., Cheng, Y., Wu, X., Liu, J., Nano Lett. 13, 2485 (2013).CrossRef
Chen, R.J., Zhao, T., Lu, J., Wu, F., Li, L., Chen, J.Z., Tan, G.Q., Ye, Y.S., Amine, K., Nano Lett. 13, 4642 (2013).CrossRef
Wang, H., Yang, Y., Liang, Y., Robinson, J.T., Li, Y., Jackson, A., Cui, Y., Dai, H., Nano Lett. 11, 2644 (2011).CrossRef
Zheng, G., Zhang, Q., Cha, J.J., Yang, Y., Li, W., Seh, Z.W., Cui, Y., Nano Lett. 13, 1265 (2013).CrossRef
Song, M.K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., Nano Lett. 13, 5891 (2013).CrossRef
Jayaprakash, N., Shen, J., Moganty, S.S., Corona, A., Archer, L.A., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 123, 6026 (2011).CrossRef
Kim, J., Lee, D.J., Jung, H.-G., Sun, Y.-K., Hassoun, J., Scrosati, B., Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 1076 (2013).CrossRef
Guo, J., Xu, Y., Wang, C., Nano Lett. 11, 4288 (2011).CrossRef
Zheng, G., Yang, Y., Chan, J.J., Hong, S.S., Cui, Y., Nano Lett. 11, 4462 (2011).CrossRef
Cuisinier, M., Cabelguen, P.-E., Evers, S., He, G., Kolbeck, M., Garsuch, A., Bolin, T., Balasubramanian, M., Nazar, L.F., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3227 (2013).CrossRef
He, G., Evers, S., Liang, X., Cuisinier, M., Garsuch, A., Nazar, L.F., ACS Nano 7, 10920 (2013).CrossRef
Peled, E., Gorenshtein, A., Segal, M., Sternberg, Y., J. Power Sources 26, 269 (1989).CrossRef
Kim, H.S., Jeong, C.-S., Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 32, 3682 (2011).CrossRef
Yuan, L.X., Feng, J.K., Ai, X.P., Cao, Y.L., Chen, S.L., Yang, H.X., Electrochem. Commun. 8, 610 (2006).CrossRef
Tamura, T., Hachida, T., Yoshida, K., Tachikawa, N., Dokko, K., Watanabe, M., J. Power Sources 195, 6095 (2010).CrossRef
Park, J.-W., Yamauchi, K., Takashima, E., Tachikawa, N., Ueno, K., Dokko, K., Watanabe, M., J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 4431 (2013).CrossRef
Suo, L., Hu, Y.S., Li, H., Armand, M., Chen, L., Nat. Commun. 4, 1481 (2013).CrossRef
Weng, W., Pol, V.G., Amine, K., Adv. Mater. 25, 1608 (2013).CrossRef
Sakuda, A., Hayashi, A., Tatsumisago, M., Sci. Rep. 3, 2261 (2013).CrossRef
Agostini, M., Aihara, Y., Yamada, T., Scrosati, B., Hassoun, J., Solid State Ionics 244, 48 (2013).CrossRef
Lin, Z., Liu, Z.C., Dudney, N.J., Liang, C.D., ACS Nano 7, 2829 (2013).CrossRef
Nagao, M., Hayashi, A., Tatsumisago, M., Electrochim. Acta 56, 6055 (2011).CrossRef
Machida, N., Kobayashi, K., Nishikawa, Y., Shigematsu, T., Solid State Ionics 175, 247 (2004).CrossRef
Kobayashi, T., Imade, Y., Shishihara, D., Homma, K., Nagao, M., Watanabe, R., Yokoi, T., Yamada, A., Kanno, R., Tatsumi, T., J. Power Sources 182, 621 (2008).CrossRef
Sahu, G., Lin, Z., Li, J., Liu, Z., Dudney, N., Liang, C., Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 1053 (2014).CrossRef
Takeuchia, T., Kageyama, H., Nakanishi, K., Ohta, T., Sakuda, A., Sakaebe, H., Kobayashi, H., Tatsumi, K., Ogumi, Z., Electrochem. Lett. 3, A31 (2014).CrossRef
Barchasz, C., Molton, F., Duboc, C., Leprêtre, J.C., Patoux, S., Alloin, F., Anal. Chem. 84, 3973 (2012).CrossRef
Patel, M.U.M., Demir-Cakan, R., Morcrette, M., Tarascon, J.-M., Gaberscek, M., Dominko, R., ChemSusChem 6 (7), 1177 (2013).CrossRef
Walus, S., Barchasz, C., Colin, J.F., Martin, J.F., Elkaim, E., Lepretre, J.C., Alloin, F., Chem. Commun. 49, 7899 (2013).CrossRef
Villevieille, C., Novak, P., J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 13089 (2013).CrossRef
Yuan, L., Qiu, X., Chen, L., Zhu, W., J. Power Sources 189, 127 (2009).CrossRef
Gao, J., Lowe, M.A., Kiya, Y., Abruña, H.D., J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 25132 (2011).CrossRef

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lithium-sulfur batteries
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Lithium-sulfur batteries
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Lithium-sulfur batteries
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *