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Alpha particle damage in biotite characterized by microfocus X-ray diffraction and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 July 2018

R. A. D. Pattrick
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
J. M. Charnock
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
T. Geraki
Affiliation:
Diamond Light Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, Didcott, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK
J. F. W. Mosselmans
Affiliation:
Diamond Light Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, Didcott, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK
C. I. Pearce
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK and Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Cumbria CA24 3HA, UK
S. Pimblott
Affiliation:
School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK and Dalton Cumbrian Facility, The University of Manchester, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Cumbria CA24 3HA, UK
G. T. R. Droop
Affiliation:
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and the Williamson Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Corresponding
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Abstract

Combined microfocus XAS and XRD analysis of α-particle radiation damage haloes around thorium-containing monazite in Fe-rich biotite reveals changes in both short- and long-range order. The total α-particles flux derived from the Th and U in the monazite over 1.8 Ga was 0.022 α particles per atomic component of the monazite and this caused increasing amounts of structural damage as the monazite emitter is approached. Short-range order disruption revealed by Fe K-edge EXAFS is manifest by a high variability in Fe–Fe bond lengths and a marked decrease in coordination number. XANES examination of the Fe K-edge shows a decrease in energy of the main absorption by up to 1 eV, revealing reduction of the Fe3+ components of the biotite by interaction with the 2 4He2+, the result of low and thermal energy electrons produced by the cascade of electron collisions. Changes in d spacings in the XRD patterns reveal the development of polycrystallinity and new domains of damaged biotite structure with evidence of displaced atoms due to ionization interactions and nuclear collisions. The damage in biotite is considered to have been facilitated by destruction of OH groups by radiolysis and the development of Frenkel pairs causing an increase in the trioctahedral layer distances and contraction within the trioctahedral layers. The large amount of radiation damage close to the monazite can be explained by examining the electronic stopping flux.

Type
Research Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2013 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2013

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