Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-8r8mm Total loading time: 0.309 Render date: 2021-12-07T01:26:57.530Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The Role of Atomic Scale Investigation in the Development of Nanoscale Materials for Information Storage Applications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 June 2004

A.K. Petford-Long
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK
D.J. Larson
Affiliation:
Recording Head Operations, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Bloomington, MN 55435, USA
A. Cerezo
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK
X. Portier
Affiliation:
Materials Laboratory, Storage Technology Division, IBM, 5600 Cottle Road, San Jose, CA 95193, USA
P. Shang
Affiliation:
Materials Laboratory, Storage Technology Division, IBM, 5600 Cottle Road, San Jose, CA 95193, USA
D. Ozkaya
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK
T. Long
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK
P.H. Clifton
Affiliation:
Seagate Technology, Londonderry BT48 0BF, N. Ireland

Abstract

It is well established that the response of devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect depends critically on film microstructure, with parameters such as interfacial abruptness, the roughness and waviness of the layers, and grain size being crucial. Such devices have applications in information storage systems, and are therefore of great technological interest as well as being of fundamental scientific interest. The layers must be studied at high spatial resolution if the microstructural parameters are to be characterized with sufficient detail to enable the effects of fabrication conditions on properties to be understood, and the techniques of high resolution electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy chemical mapping, and atom probe microanalysis are ideally suited. This article describes the application of these techniques to a range of materials including spin valves, spin tunnel junctions, and GMR multilayers.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2004 Microscopy Society of America

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Baibich, M.N., Broto, J.M., Fert, A., Nguyen Van Dau, F., Petroff, F., Etienne, P., Creuzet, G., Friedrich, A., & Chazelas, J. (1988). Giant magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr magnetic superlattices. Phys Rev Lett 61, 24722475.Google Scholar
Bravman, J.C. & Sinclair, R. (1984). The preparation of cross-section specimens for transmission electron microscopy. J Electron Microsc Techn 1, 5361.Google Scholar
Cerezo, A., Godfrey, T.J., Sibrandij, S.J., Warren, P.J., & Smith, G.D.W. (1998). Performance of an energy-compensated three-dimensional atom probe. Rev Sci Instrum 69, 4958.Google Scholar
Dieny, B., Speriosu, V., Parkin, S.S.P., Gurney, B.A., Wilhoit, D.R., & Mauri, D. (1991). Giant magnetoresistance in soft ferromagnetic multilayers. Phys Rev B 43, 12971300.Google Scholar
Eckl, Th., Reiss, G., Brückl, H., & Hoffman, H. (1994). Electronic transport properties and thickness dependence of the giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu multilayers. J Appl Phys 75, 362367.Google Scholar
Gallagher, W.J., Parkin, S.S.P., Lu, Y., Bian, X.P., Marley, A., Roche, K.P., Altman, R.P., Rishton, S.A., Jahnes, C., Shaw, T.M., & Xiao, G. (1997). Microstructured magnetic tunnel junctions. J Appl Phys 81, 37413746.Google Scholar
Honda, S., Ohmoto, S., Imada, R., & Nawate, M. (1993). Giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu multilayers sputter-deposited on glass. J Magn Magn Mater 126, 419421.Google Scholar
Langford, R.M. & Petford-Long, A.K. (2001). Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling. J Vac Sci Technol A 19, 21862193.Google Scholar
Larson, D.J., Cerezo, A., Clifton, P.H., Petford-Long, A.K., Martens, R.L., Kelly, T.F., & Tabat, N. (2001). Atom probe analysis of roughness and chemical intermixing in CoFe/Cu films. J Appl Phys 89, 75177521.Google Scholar
Larson, D.J., Clifton, P.H., Tabat, N., Cerezo, A., Petford-Long, A.K., Martens, R.L., & Kelly, T.F. (2000a). Atomic-scale analysis of CoFe/Cu and CoFe/NiFe interfaces. Appl Phys Lett 77, 726728.Google Scholar
Larson, D.J., Martens, R.L., Kelly, T.F., Miller, M.K., & Tabat, N. (2000b). Atom probe analysis of planar multilayer structures. J Appl Phys 87, 59895991.Google Scholar
Leal, J.L. & Kryder, M.H. (1998). Spin valves exchange biased by Co/Ru/Co synthetic antoferromagnets. J Appl Phys 83, 37203723.Google Scholar
Miller, M.K., Cerezo, A., Hetherington, M.G., & Smith, G.D.W. (1996). Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicholson, D.M.C., Butler, W.H., Zhang, X.G., MacLaren, J.M., Gurney, B.A., & Speriosu, V.S. (1994). Magnetic structure of the spin valve interface. J Appl Phys 76, 68056807.Google Scholar
Okamoto, J.K., Pearson, D.H., Ahn, C.C., & Fultz, B. (1992). EELS analysis of electronic structure and microstructure of metals. In Transmission Electron Energy Spectromety in Materials Science, Disko, M.M., Ahn, C.C. & Fultz, B. (Eds.), pp. 183216. Warrendale, PA: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.
Ozkaya, D., Petford-Long, A.K., Jo, M.-H., & Blamire, M.G. (2001). Structure and chemistry of manganite-based tunnel junctions. J Appl Phys 89, 67576759.Google Scholar
Pearson, D.H., Fultz, B., & Ahn, C.C. (1988). Measurement of 3d state occupancy in transition metals using electron energy loss spectrometry. Appl Phys Lett 53, 14051407.Google Scholar
Portier, X. & Petford-Long, A.K. (1999). Electron microscopy studies of spin-valve materials. J Phys D 32, R89R108.Google Scholar
Portier, X., Petford-Long, A.K., Bayle-Guillemaud, P., Anthony, T.C., & Brug, J.A. (1999). HREM study of the orange peel effect in spin-valves. J Mag Magn Mater 198–199, 110112.Google Scholar
Rouvière, J.L. (1994). Characterisation of interfaces by HREM. What can we get with quantitative analysis? Proc of ICEM13 2A, 123124.Google Scholar
Shang, P., Petford-Long, A.K., Nickel, J.H., Sharma, M., & Anthony, T.C. (2001). High resolution electron microscopy study of tunnelling junctions with AlN and AlON bariers. J Appl Phys 89, 68746876.Google Scholar
Sharma, M., Nickel, J.H., Anthony, T.C., & Wang, S.X. (2000). Spin-dependent tunnelling junctions with AlN and AlON barriers. Appl Phys Lett 77, 22192221.Google Scholar
White, R.L. (1994). Giant magnetoresistance materials and their potential as read head sensors. IEEE Trans Mag 30, 346352.Google Scholar
Zhang, Z., Feng, Y.C., Clinton, T., Badran, G., Yeh, N.-H., Girt, E., Harkness, S., Munteanu, M., Richter, H.J., Ranjan, R., Hwang, S., Rauch, G.C., Ghaly, M., Larson, D.J., Singleton, E., Vas'ko, V., Ho, J., Stageberg, F., Kong, V., Duxstad, K., & Slade, S. (2002). Magnetic recording demonstration over 100 Gb/in2. IEEE Trans Magn 38, 18611866.Google Scholar
Zhou, X.W., Wadley, H.N.G., Johnson, R.A., Larson, D.J., Tabat, N., Cerezo, A., Petford-Long, A.K., Smith, G.D.W., Clifton, P.H., Martens, R.L., & Kelly, T.F. (2001). Atomic scale structure of giant magnetoresistive multilayers. Acta Mat 49, 40054015.Google Scholar
3
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Role of Atomic Scale Investigation in the Development of Nanoscale Materials for Information Storage Applications
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Role of Atomic Scale Investigation in the Development of Nanoscale Materials for Information Storage Applications
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Role of Atomic Scale Investigation in the Development of Nanoscale Materials for Information Storage Applications
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *