Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-klj7v Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-21T09:52:00.391Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Ozone Treatment of Grapes During Withering for Amarone Wine: A Multimodal Imaging and Spectroscopic Analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 October 2018

Barbara Cisterna*
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
Federico Boschi
Affiliation:
Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy
Anna C. Croce
Affiliation:
Institute of Molecular Genetics(CNR), Via Abbiategrasso 207, Pavia 27100, Italy
Rachele Podda
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
Serena Zanzoni
Affiliation:
Centro Piattaforme Tecnologiche, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy
Daniele Degl’Innocenti
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
Paolo Bernardi
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
Manuela Costanzo
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
Pasquina Marzola
Affiliation:
Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona 37134, Italy
Viviana Covi
Affiliation:
San Rocco Clinic, Via Monsignor G. V. Moreni 95, Montichari 25018, Italy
Gabriele Tabaracci
Affiliation:
San Rocco Clinic, Via Monsignor G. V. Moreni 95, Montichari 25018, Italy
Manuela Malatesta
Affiliation:
Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
*
*Author for correspondence: Barbara Cisterna, E-mail: barbara.cisterna@univr.it
Get access

Abstract

The production of Amarone wine is governed by a disciplinary guideline to preserve its typical features; however, postharvest infections by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) not only represent a phytosanitary problem but also cause a significant loss of product. In this study, we tested a treatment with mild ozoniztion on grapes for Amarone wine production during withering in the fruttaio (the environment imposed by the disciplinary guideline) and evaluated the impact on berry features by a multimodal imaging approach. The results indicate that short and repeated treatments with low O3 concentrations speed up the naturally occurring berry withering, probably inducing a reorganization of the epicuticular wax layer, and inhibit the development of B. cinerea, blocking the fungus in an intermediate vegetative stage. This pilot study will pave the way to long-term research on Amarone wine obtained from O3-treated grapes.

Type
Biological Science Applications
Copyright
© Microscopy Society of America 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agati, G, Meyer, S, Matteini, P Cerovic, ZG (2007) Assessment of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries using a noninvasive chlorophyll fluorescence method. J Agric Food Chem 55, 10531061.Google Scholar
Anbar, M Neta, P (1967) A compilation of specific bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals with inorganic and organic compounds in aqueous solution. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 18, 493523.Google Scholar
Bablon, G, Bellamy, WD, Bourbigot, M-M, Daniel, FB, Dore´, M, Erb, F, Gordon, G, Langlais, B, Laplanche, A, Legube, B, Martin, G, Masschelein, WJ, Pacey, G, Reckhow, DA Ventresque, C (1991) In Ozone in Water Treatment: Application and Engineering, Langlais B, Reckhow DA and Brink DR (Eds.), pp. 11–132. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.Google Scholar
Baker, EA (1982) Chemistry and morphology of plant epicuticular waxes. In The Plant Cuticle, Cutler DF, Alvin KL and Price CE (Eds.), pp. 139166. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baur, S, Klaiber, RG, Koblo, A Carle, R (2004) Effect of different washing procedures on phenolic metabolism of shredded packaged iceberg lettuce during storage. J Agric Food Chem 52, 70177025.Google Scholar
Beltran, D, Selma, MV, Marin, A Gil, MI (2005) Ozonated water extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce. J Agric Food Chem 53, 56545663.Google Scholar
Boonkorn, P, Gemma, H, Sugaya, S, Setha, S, Uthaibutra, J Whangchai, K (2012) Impact of high-dose, short periods of ozone exposure on green mold and antioxidant enzyme activity of tangerine fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 67, 2528.Google Scholar
Boschi, F, Fontanella, M, Calderan, L Sbarbati, A (2011) Luminescence and fluorescence of essential oils. Fluorescence imaging in vivo of wild chamomile oil. Eur J Histochem 55, 97100.Google Scholar
Chervin, C, Westercamp, P Monteils, G (2005) Ethanol vapours limit Botrytis development over the postharvest life of table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 36, 319322.Google Scholar
Commenil, P, Brunet, L Audran, JC (1997) The development of the grape berry cuticle in relation to susceptibility to bunch rot disease. J Exp Bot 48, 15991607.Google Scholar
Costanzo, M, Cisterna, B, Vella, A, Cestari, T, Covi, V, Tabaracci, G Malatesta, M (2015) Low ozone concentrations stimulate cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription. Eur J Histochem 59, 129136.Google Scholar
Cravero, F, Englezos, V, Rantsiou, K, Torchio, F, Giacosa, S, Segade, SR, Gerbi, V, Rolle, L Cocolin, L (2016) Ozone treatments of post harvested wine grapes: Impact on fermentative yeasts and wine chemical properties. Food Res Int 87, 134141.Google Scholar
Crisosto, CH Mitchell, FG (2002) Postharvest handling systems: small fruits. I. Table grapes. In Postharvest Technology of Horticulture Crops, Kader AA (Ed.), pp. 357363. Oakland: University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
Ewell, AW (1946) Recent ozone investigations. J Appl Phys 17, 908912.Google Scholar
Fedrizzi, B, Tosi, E, Simonato, B, Finato, F, Cipriani, M, Caramia, G Zapparoli, G (2011) Changes in wine aroma composition according to botrytized berry percentage: A preliminary study on Amarone wine. Food Technol Biotechnol 49, 529535.Google Scholar
Feliziani, E, Romanazzi, G Smilanick, JL (2014) Application of low concentrations of ozone during the cold storage of table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 93, 3848.Google Scholar
Gabler, FM, Smilanick, JL, Mansour, MF Karaca, H (2010) Influence of fumigation with high concentrations of ozone gas on postharvest gray mold and fungicide residues on table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 55, 8590.Google Scholar
Gabler, FM, Smilanick, JL, Mansour, M, Ramming, DW Mackey, BE (2003) Correlations of morphological, anatomical, and chemical features of grape berries with resistance to Botrytis cinerea . Phytopathology 93, 12631273.Google Scholar
Galiè, M, Costanzo, M, Nodari, A, Boschi, F, Calderan, L, Mannucci, S, Covi, V, Tabaracci, G Malatesta, M (2018) Mild ozonisation activates antioxidant cell response by the Keap1/Nrf2 dependent pathway. Free Radic Biol Med 124, 114121.Google Scholar
Giusti, MM Wrolstad, RE (2001) Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by uv-visible spectroscopy. CPFA 0(1), F1.2.1–F1.2.13.Google Scholar
Glowacz, M, Colgan, R Rees, D (2015) The use of ozone to extend the shelf-life and maintain quality of fresh produce. J Sci Food Agric 95, 662671.Google Scholar
Hinze, H, Prakash, D Holzer, H (1987) Effect of ozone on ATP, cytosolic enzymes and permeability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Arch Microbiol 147, 105108.Google Scholar
Jermann, C, Koutchma, T, Margas, E, Leadley, C Mapping, VRP (2015) Trends in novel and emerging food processing technologies around the world. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 31, 1427.Google Scholar
Kerr, WL, Clark, CJ, McCarthy, MJ de Ropp, JS (1997) Freezing effects in fruit tissue of kiwifruit observed by magnetic resonance imaging. Sci Hortic 69, 169179.Google Scholar
Khadre, MA, Yousef, AE Kim, JG (2001) Microbiological aspects of ozone applications in food: a review. J Food Sci 66, 12421253.Google Scholar
Laureano, J, Giacosa, S, Río Segade, S, Torchio, F, Cravero, F, Gerbi, V Rolle, L (2016) Effects of continuous exposure to ozone gas and electrolyzed water on the skin hardness of table and wine grape varieties. J Texture Stud 47, 4048.Google Scholar
Lichtenthaler, HK Buschmann, C (2001) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by uv-vis spectroscopy. CPFA 1(1), F4.3.1–F4.3.8.Google Scholar
Lichter, A, Mlikota Gabler, F Smilanick, JL (2006) Control of spoilage in table grapes. Stewart Postharvest Rev 6, 110.Google Scholar
Liew, CL Prange, RK (1994) Effect of ozone and storage temperature on postharvest diseases and physiology of carrots (Daucus carota L.). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 119, 563567.Google Scholar
Ozkan, R, Smilanick, JL Karabulut, AO (2011) Toxicity of ozone gas to conidia of Penicillium italicum, and Botrytis cinerea and control of gray mold on table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 60, 4751.Google Scholar
Oztekin, S, Zorlugenc, B Zorlugenc, FK (2006) Effects of ozone treatment on microflora of dried figs. J Food Eng 75, 396399.Google Scholar
Paissoni, MA, Segade, SR, Giacosa, S, Torchio, F, Cravero, F, Englezos, V, Rantsiou, K, Carboni, C, Gerbi, V, Teissedre, P-L Rolle, L (2017) Impact of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic extractability of red winegrapes cv Barbera and Nebbiolo (Vitis vinifera L.). Food Res Int 98, 6878.Google Scholar
Palou, L, Smilanick, JL, Crisosto, CH, Mansour, M Plaza, P (2003) Ozone gas penetration and control of the sporulation of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum within commercial packages of oranges during cold storage. Crop Protect 22, 11311134.Google Scholar
Palou, L, Smilanick, JL Margosan, DA (2006) Ozone application for sanitation and control of postharvest diseases of fresh fruits and vegetables. In Recent Advances in Alternative Postharvest Technologies to Control Fungal Diseases in Fruits & Vegetables, Troncoso-Rojas R, Tiznado-Hernandez ME and Gonzales-Leon A (Eds.), pp. 132. Kerala: TransWorld Research Network.Google Scholar
Paronetto, L Dellaglio, F (2011) Amarone: A modern wine coming from an ancient production technology. Adv Food Nutr Res 63, 285306.Google Scholar
Picariello, L, Gambuti, A, Picariello, B Moio, L (2017) Evolution of pigments, tannins and acetaldehyde during forced oxidation of red wine: effect of tannins addition. LWT - Food Sci Technol 77, 370375.Google Scholar
Prasad, KMM, Raheem, S, Vijayalekshmi, P Kamala Sastri, CK (1996) Basic aspects and applications of tristimulus colorimetry. Talanta 43, 11871206.Google Scholar
Reynhardt, EC Riederer, M (1991) Structure and molecular dynamics of the cuticular wax from the leaves of Citrus aurantium L. J Phys D: Appl Phys 24, 478486.Google Scholar
Río Segade, S, Torchio, F, Giacosa, S, Ricauda Aimonino, D, Gay, P, Lambri, M Rolle, L (2014) Impact of several pre-treatments on the extraction of phenolic compounds in winegrape varieties with different anthocyanin profiles and skin mechanical properties. J Agric Food Chem 62, 84378451.Google Scholar
Rodoni, L, Casadei, N, Concellon, A, Chaves Alicia, AR Vicente, AR (2009) Effect of short-term ozone treatments on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit quality and cell wall degradation. J Agr Food Chem 58, 594599.Google Scholar
Rosenquist, JK Morrison, JC (1989) Some factors affecting cuticle and wax accumulation on grape berries. Am J Enol Vitic 40, 241244.Google Scholar
Rubio Ames, Z, Feliziani, E Smilanick, JL (2013) Germination of fungal conidia after exposure to low concentration ozone atmospheres. Postharvest Biol Technol 83, 2226.Google Scholar
Rustioni, L, Basilico, R, Fiori, S, Leoni, A, Maghradze, D Failla, O (2013) Grape colour phenotyping: development of a method based on the reflectance spectrum. Phytochem Anal 24, 453459.Google Scholar
Santos, MC, Nunes, C, Saraiva, JA Coimbra, MA (2012) Chemical and physical methodologies for the replacement/reduction of sulfur dioxide use during winemaking: Review of their potentialities and limitations. Eur Food Res Technol 234, 112.Google Scholar
Sarig, P, Zahavi, T, Zutkhi, Y, Yannai, S, Lisker, N Ben-Arie, R (1996) Ozone for control of post-harvest decay of table grapes caused by Rhizopus stolonifer. Physiol Mol Plant P 48, 403415.Google Scholar
Scassellati, C, Costanzo, M, Cisterna, B, Nodari, A, Galiè, M, Cattaneo, A, Covi, V, Tabaracci, G, Bonvicini, C Malatesta, M (2017) Effects of mild ozonisation on gene expression and nuclear domains organization in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro 44, 100110.Google Scholar
Schwab, W Wüst, M (2015) Understanding the constitutive and induced biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes (Vitis vinifera): A key to unlocking the biochemical secrets of unique grape aroma profiles. J Agric Food Chem 63, 1059110603.Google Scholar
Sengun, IY (2014) Influence of ozonated water on microbial load and shelf life of shredded carrots. Ital J Food Sci 26, 383389.Google Scholar
Sharpe, D, Fan, L, McRae, K, Walker, B, MacKay, R Doucette, C (2009) Effects of ozone treatment on Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in relation to horticultural product quality. J Food Sci 74, 250257.Google Scholar
Smilanick, JL, Harvey, JM, Hartsell, PL, Henson, D, Harris, CM, Fouse, DC Assemi, M (1990) Factors influencing sulfite residues in table grapes after sulphur dioxide fumigation. Am J Enol Vitic 41, 131136.Google Scholar
Sun, CY, Wang, XL, Zhang, X, Qin, C, Li, P, Su, ZM, Zhu, DX, Shan, GG, Shao, KZ, Wu, H Li, J (2013) Efficient and tunable white-light emission of metal-organic frameworks by iridium-complex encapsulation. Nat Commun 4, 2717.Google Scholar
Tosi, E, Fedrizzi, B, Azzolini, M, Finato, F, Simonato, B Zapparoli, G (2012) Effects of noble rot on must composition and aroma profile of Amarone wine produced by the traditional grape withering protocol. Food Chem 130, 370375.Google Scholar
Yamamuza, H Naito, R (1983) The surface wax of several grapes in Japan. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 52, 266272.Google Scholar
Zhang, L, Lu, Z, Yu, Z Gao, X (2005) Preservation fresh-cut celery by treatment of ozonated water. Food Control 16, 279283.Google Scholar