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Lead Pipe Scale Analysis Using Broad-Beam Argon Ion Milling to Elucidate Drinking Water Corrosion

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda
Affiliation:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26 W. MLK Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Colin White
Affiliation:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26 W. MLK Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
Darren Lytle*
Affiliation:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26 W. MLK Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
*
Corresponding author. E-mail: lytle.darren@epa.gov
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Abstract

Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well.

Type
Material Applications
Copyright
Copyright © Microscopy Society of America 2011

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Footnotes

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, through its Office of Research and Development, funded and managed, or partially funded and collaborated in, the research described herein. It has been subjected to the Agency's administrative review and has been approved for external publication. Any opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency, therefore, no official endorsement should be inferred. Any mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

References

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