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Preparing your materials

Policy on prior publication

When authors submit manuscripts to this journal, these manuscripts should not be under consideration, accepted for publication or in press within a different journal, book or similar entity, unless explicit permission or agreement has been sought from all entities involved. However, deposition of a preprint on the author’s personal website, in an institutional repository, or in a preprint archive shall not be viewed as prior or duplicate publication. Authors should follow the Cambridge University Press Preprint Policy regarding preprint archives and maintaining the version of record. 

Preparation of a Manuscript

The entire manuscript (including notes and references) should be produced as double spaced typescript on 8 1/2 x 11-inch or A4 white paper, with wide margins to accommodate copyediting. The manuscript should be converted to a pdf for submission by uploading to the journal's server. The publisher asks that you provide a PDF file of the final version of your paper, together with a copy of the word processing source file in which the paper was written. Pages should be numbered consecutively. Page 1 should provide the article, author's(s') names (in the form preferred for publication, complete affiliation, phone, fax and e-mail numbers (if available). At the bottom of Page 1 place any footnotes to the title or authors, indicated by superscripts *, **, etc. Page 2 should contain a proposed running head (abbreviated form of the title) of up to 40 characters, and the name and mailing address, telephone, fax and e-mail numbers of the author to whom proof's should be sent. Page 3 should contain a short abstract of the paper in less than 150 words. The abstract will appear at the head of the article when published in the journal. A list of three or four keywords or terms should also be included. The full text of the manuscript should begin on Page 4.

Equations. All equations should be typewritten and the numbers for displayed equations should be placed in parenthesis in the right margin. References to equations should simply use the form "(3)." Superscripts and subscripts should be typed clearly above and below the line, respectively. Theorem, lemma, and proposition statements should appear in italic print. End-of-proof signposts should appear as such: either ■ or Q.E.D., typed in italics. Authors are encouraged to use the following order for parentheses: {[(...)]}.

Tables and Figures. If possible, the publisher asks that you include all graphics (charts, diagrams or other art work) at the end of the paper, indicating in the body of the paper where each graphic should appear. If it is not possible for you to include the graphics files in the word processor source code, you should upload the individual graphics files separately after you upload the PDF and source files for your paper.

Color Illustrations. Charges apply for all color figures that appear in the print version of the journal. At the time of submission, contributors should clearly state whether their figures should appear in color in the online version only, or whether they should appear in color online and in the print version. There is no charge for including color figures in the online version of the Journal but it must be clear that color is needed to enhance the meaning of the figure, rather than simply being for aesthetic purposes. If you request color figures in the printed version, you will be contacted by CCC-Rightslink who are acting on our behalf to collect Author Charges. Please follow their instructions in order to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.

References. References should be cited in the text by the author's last name and the date of publication. Complete bibliographic information for each citation should be included in the list of references. References should be typed in alphabetical order in the style of the following examples:


Stokey, Nancy L. and Robert E. Lucas, Jr. with Edward Prescott (1989)Recursive Methods in Economic Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Chapter in an Edited Volume:

Danthine, Jean-Pierre and John B. Donaldson (1995) Computing equilibria of nonoptimal economies. In Thomas F. Cooley (ed.), Frontiers of Business Cycle Research, pp. 65-97. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Journal Article:

Epstein, Larry G. and Stanley Zin (1989) Substitution, risk aversion and the temporal behavior of consumption and asset returns I: a theoretical framework.Econometrica 42, 937-969.

Article in Press:

Huang, He, Selahattin Imrohoroglu, and Thomas J. Sargent (in press) Two computational experiments to fund Social Security. Macroeconomic Dynamics.

Journal names should not be abbreviated.

Footnotes. Where more that a simple source citation is called for, footnotes may be used. These should be numbered consecutively throughout the text and typed together at the end of the paper before the references. Source citations within footnotes follow the same style as citations within the text.

Copyediting and Proofreading. The publisher reserves the right to copyedit and proofread all articles for publication, but the corresponding author will receive page proofs for final proofreading. These should be checked and returned within five days of receipt. The publisher reserves the right to charge authors for excessive correction of non-typographical errors.

Competing Interests

All authors must include a competing interest declaration in their main manuscript file. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. 

Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. 

If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. 

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author 1 is employed at organisation A, Author 2 is on the Board of company B and is a member of organisation C. Author 3 has received grants from company D.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”. 

Supplementary materials

Material that is not essential to understanding or supporting a manuscript, but which may nonetheless be relevant or interesting to readers, may be submitted as supplementary material. Supplementary material will be published online alongside your article, but will not be published in the pages of the journal. Types of supplementary material may include, but are not limited to, appendices, additional tables or figures, datasets, videos, and sound files.

Supplementary materials will not be typeset or copyedited, so should be supplied exactly as they are to appear online. Please see our general guidance on supplementary materials for further information.

Where relevant we encourage authors to publish additional qualitative or quantitative research outputs in an appropriate repository, and cite these in manuscripts.

English language editing services 

Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This step is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the Editor and any reviewers.  

In order to help prospective authors to prepare for submission and to reach their publication goals, Cambridge University Press offers a range of high-quality manuscript preparation services – including language editing – delivered in partnership with American Journal Experts. You can find out more on our Language Services page.

Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge-published journal. 

Author affiliations

Author affiliations should represent the institution(s) at which the research presented was conducted and/or supported and/or approved. For non-research content, any affiliations should represent the institution(s) with which each author is currently affiliated. 

For more information, please see our author affiliation policy and author affiliation FAQs.

Authorship and contributorship

All authors listed on any papers submitted to this journal must be in agreement that the authors listed would all be considered authors according to disciplinary norms, and that no authors who would reasonably be considered an author have been excluded. For further details on this journal’s authorship policy, please see this journal's publishing ethics policies.

Author Hub

You can find guides for many aspects of publishing with Cambridge at Author Hub, our suite of resources for Cambridge authors.


We encourage authors to identify themselves using ORCID when submitting a manuscript to this journal. ORCID provides a unique identifier for researchers and, through integration with key research workflows such as manuscript submission and grant applications, provides the following benefits:

  • Discoverability: ORCID increases the discoverability of your publications, by enabling smarter publisher systems and by helping readers to reliably find work that you have authored.
  • Convenience: As more organisations use ORCID, providing your iD or using it to register for services will automatically link activities to your ORCID record, and will enable you to share this information with other systems and platforms you use, saving you re-keying information multiple times.
  • Keeping track: Your ORCID record is a neat place to store and (if you choose) share validated information about your research activities and affiliations.

See our ORCID FAQs for more information. If you don’t already have an iD, you can create one by registering directly at

ORCIDs can also be used if authors wish to communicate to readers up-to-date information about how they wish to be addressed or referred to (for example, they wish to include pronouns, additional titles, honorifics, name variations, etc.) alongside their published articles. We encourage authors to make use of the ORCID profile’s “Published Name” field for this purpose. This is entirely optional for authors who wish to communicate such information in connection with their article. Please note that this method is not currently recommended for author name changes: see Cambridge’s author name change policy if you want to change your name on an already published article. See our ORCID FAQs for more information.