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Tiwanaku Influence in the South Central Andes: Strontium Isotope Analysis and Middle Horizon Migration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Kelly J. Knudson*
Affiliation:
Center for Bioarchaeological Research, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, PO Box 872402, Tempe, AZ 85287 (kelly.knudson@asu.edu)

Abstract

Although the presence of Tiwanaku-style material culture throughout southern Peru, northern Chile, and western Bolivia is well documented, the nature of Tiwanaku influence during the Middle horizon (A.D. 500–1100) is variously attributed to imperial expansion or economic and/or religious relationships. Strontium isotope data from archaeological human remains from Tiwanaku-affiliated sites identified first-generation immigrants from the Lake Titicaca basin outside of the Tiwanaku heartland at the Peruvian site of Chen Chen. These data provide an important component to studies that demonstrated close biological relationships during the Middle horizon but could not demonstrate the direction of population movement. However, no immigrants from the Lake Titicaca basin were identified at the San Pedro de Atacama cemeteries of Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, and Solcor-3. At the sites of Tiwanaku, Tilata, Iwawe, and Kirawi, strontium isotope ratios were also variable, and demonstrate movement within the Lake Titicaca basin. This demonstrates that Tiwanaku influence involved direct colonization in the Moquegua Valley but that in other regions, like San Pedro de Atacama, local inhabitants adopted Tiwanaku-style material culture. This elucidates the complex and highly variable relationships between the Tiwanaku heartland and peripheral sites during the Middle horizon.

Resumen

Resumen

Aún cuando la presencia del estilo Tiwanaku está bien documentada en el sur de Perú, norte de Chile y el oeste de Bolivia, la naturaleza de esta influencia durante el horizonte Medio (500–1000 d.C.) ha sido atribuida a la expansión imperial o a las relaciones económicas y/o religiosas. Los datos obtenidos de los isótopos del estroncio de restos humanos arquelógicos procedentes de sitios de filiación Tiwanaku identificaron una primera generación de migrantes de la cuenca del Titicaca, fuera del núcleo Tiwanaku en el sitio de Chen Chen. Estos análisis muestran una cercanía biológica entre las poblaciones del horizonte Medio aunque no la dirección del flujo poblacional. Sin embargo, ningún migrante de la cuenca del lago Titicaca fue identificado en las muestras de los cementerios de Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, y Solcor-3 en San Pedro de Atacama. En los sitios de Tiwanaku, Tilata, Iwawe, y Kirawi, los datos isotópicos son también diversos e indican un movimiento interno en la cuenca del lago Titicaca. Esto demuestra que Tiwanaku influenció de manera directa la colonización del valle de Moquegua pero que en otras regiones, como San Pedro de Atacama, los habitantes locales adoptaron el estilo Tiwanaku en su cultura material. Esto aclara la compleja y altamente variable relación entre el núcleo de Tiwanaku y los sitios periféricos durante el horizonte Medio.

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Copyright
Copyright © Society for American Archaeology 2008

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