Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-598jt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-29T18:51:30.467Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Resonant third harmonic generation in clusters with density ripple: Effect of pulse slippage

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 January 2016

Shivani Vij
Department of Applied Sciences, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar-144008, India
Niti Kant
Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, India
Munish Aggarwal*
Department of Physics, Lyallpur Khalsa College of Engineering, Jalandhar-144001, India
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Munish Aggarwal, Department of Physics, Lyallpur Khalsa College of Engineering, Jalandhar-144001, India. E-mail:


A model is presented for the resonant third harmonic generation of short pulse lasers in cluster plasma in the presence of density ripple. Because of ripple in cluster density and plasma electron density outside the cluster, the phase-matching condition for the third harmonic process is satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement of harmonic generation. We explore the impact of laser intensity, cluster size, and collisional frequency of electrons on the efficiency of third harmonic generation. Moreover, since the group velocity of the third harmonic wave is greater than that of the fundamental wave, it causes the slippage of the generated harmonic pulse out of the fundamental laser pulse and its amplitude increases with time.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ditmire, T., Zweiback, J., Yanovsky, V.P., Cowan, T.E., Hays, G. & Wharton, K.B. (1999). Nuclear fusion from explosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters. Nature 398, 489492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fomichev, S.V., Popruzhenko, S.V., Zaretsky, D.F. & Becker, W. (2003). Laser-induced nonlinear excitation of collective electron motion in a cluster. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 36, 38173834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fomichev, S.V., Zaretsky, D.F., Bauer, D. & Becker, W. (2005). Classical molecular-dynamics simulations of laser-irradiated clusters: Nonlinear electron dynamics and resonance-enhanced low-order harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. A 71, 1320113213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fomytskyi, M.V., Breizman, B.N., Arefiev, A.V. & Chiu, C. (2004). Harmonic generation in clusters. Phys. Plasmas 11, 33493359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kant, N. & Sharma, A.K. (2004). Effect of pulse slippage on resonant second harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 9981001.Google Scholar
Kim, K.Y., Alexeev, I., Parra, E. & Milchberg, H.M. (2003). Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401023404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirz, J., Jacobsen, C. & Howells, M. (1995). Soft-X-ray microscopes and their biological applications. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 28, 33130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krainov, V.P. & Smirnov, M.B. (2002). Laser-induced nonlinear excitation of collective electron motion in a cluster. Phys. Rep. 370, 237331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubiac, G.D., Bernardez, L.J., Krenz, K.D., Connell, D.J.O., Gutowski, R. & Todd, M.M. (1996). Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets. OSA Trends Opt. Photon. Ser. 4, 6671.Google Scholar
Kumar, M., Rajouria, S.K. & Magesh Kumar, K.K. (2013). Effect of pulse slippage on beat wave THz generation in a rippled density magnetized plasma. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46, 435501435504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumarappan, V., Krishnamurthy, M. & Mathur, D. (2001). Asymmetric high-energy ion emission from argon clusters in intense laser fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Layer, B.D., York, A., Antonsen, T.M., Varma, S., Chen, Y-H., Leng, Y. & Milchberg, H.M. (2007). Ultrahigh-intensity optical slow-wave structure. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, C.S. & Parashar, J. (2007). Laser self-focusing and nonlinear absorption in expanding clusters. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 10891097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, C.S. & Tripathi, V.K. (2008). The harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma density ripple created by a machining beam. Phys. Plasmas 15, 023106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mcpherson, A., Luk, T.S., Thompson, B.D., Borisov, A.B., Shiryaev, O.B., Chen, X., Boyer, K. & Rhodes, C.K. (1994). Multiphoton induced x-ray emission from Kr clusters on M-shell (≈100 Å) and L-shell (≈6 Å) transitions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 18101813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pai, C.H., Huang, S.Y., Kuo, C.C., Lin, M.W., Wang, J., Chen, S.Y., Lee, C.H. & LINs, J.Y. (2005). Fabrication of spatial transient-density structures as high-field plasma photonic devices. Phys. Plasma 12, 070707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parra, E., Alexeev, I., Fan, J., Kim, K.Y., Mcnaught, S.J. & Milchberg, H.M. (2000). X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission induced by variable pulse-width irradiation of Ar and Kr clusters and droplets. Phys. Rev. E 62, 59315934.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rajput, J., Kant, N., Singh, H. & Nanda, V. (2009). Resonant third harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in plasma by applying a wiggler magnetic field. Opt. Commun. 282, 46144617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reintjes, J., She, C.Y., Eckardt, R.C., Karangelen, N.E., Andrews, R.A. & Elton, R.C. (1977). Seventh harmonic conversion of mode-locked laser pulses to 38.0 nm. Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 480482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shim, B., Hays, G., Zgadzaj, R., Ditmire, T. & Downer, M.C. (2007). Enhanced harmonic generation from expanding clusters. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123902123904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sprangle, P., Esarey, E. & Ting, A. (1990). Nonlinear theory of intense laser-plasma interactions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 20112014.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tiwari, P.K. & Tripathi, V.K. (2004). Stimulated Raman scattering of a laser in a plasma with clusters. Phys. Plasmas 11, 16741679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiwari, P.K. & Tripathi, V.K. (2006 a). Laser beat-wave excitation of plasma waves in a clustered gas. Phys. Scr. 73, 393396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiwari, P.K. & Tripathi, V.K. (2006 b). Laser third-harmonic generation in clustered plasmas. Phys. Scr. 74, 682685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xia, X.P. (2014). Nonlinear structure of electromagnetic field, electron temperature and electron density in interaction of relativistic laser and plasma with density ripple. Laser Part. Beams 32, 591597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zharova, N.A., Litvak, A.G. & Mironov, V.A. (2003). Self-focusing of laser radiation in cluster plasma. JETP Lett. 78, 619623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar