Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 0.295 Render date: 2021-12-06T22:04:59.132Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The fronting of the back upgliding vowels in Charleston, South Carolina

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 November 2008

Maciej Baranowski
Affiliation:
University of Manchester

Abstract

In a radical reorganization of its sound system, Charleston has lost most of the distinctive features of the traditional dialect, including monophthongal and ingliding /ey/ (face) and /ow/ (goat). The traditionally back nucleus of /ow/ is now further to the front in Charleston than it is in most other dialects of American English. The fronting is led by the highest-status social group and appears not to conform to the generalization of the curvilinear principle, whereby an intermediately located social group leads linguistic change from below. It is argued that the fronting is not internally motivated, but rather it is being introduced into the dialect as a systematic borrowing. It is a change from above and as such does not bear on the curvilinear principle.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, Bridget, & Milroy, Lesley. (1999). Southern sound changes and the Detroit AAVE vowel system. Paper presented at NWAV 28 in Toronto.Google Scholar
Anderson, Bridget, Milroy, Lesley, & Nyguyen, Jennifer. (2002). Fronting of /u/ and /U/ in Detroit AAE: Evidence from real and apparent time. Paper presented at NWAV 31 in Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
Ash, Sharon. (1982). The vocalization of /l/ in Philadelphia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Ash, Sharon (1996). Freedom of movement: /uw/-fronting in the Midwest. In Arnold, J., Blake, R., Davidson, B., Schwenter, S. & Solomon, J. (eds.), Sociolinguistic variation: Data, theory, and analysis: Selected papers from NWAV 23 at Stanford. Stanford: CSLI Publications. 325.Google Scholar
Baranowski, Maciej. (2003). Beyond TELSUR: The regionalization of Charleston, S.C. Paper presented at NWAVE 32 in Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Baranowski, Maciej (2006). Phonological variation and change in the dialect of Charleston, SC. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Baranowski, Maciej (In press.) The Southern Shift in a marginally Southern dialect. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected Papers from NWAV36.Google Scholar
Boersma, Paul, & Weenink, David. (2004). Praat 4.2: Doing phonetics by computer. Computer program. Available at: http://www.Praat.org/.Google Scholar
Cedergren, Henrietta. (1973). The interplay of social and linguistic factors in Panama. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
Cedergren, Henrietta (1984). Panama revisted: Sound change in real time. Paper presented at NWAVE 13 in Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Conn, Jeff. (2002). It's not all rain and coffee: An investigation into the dialect of Portland, Oregon. Paper presented at NWAV 31Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
Di Paolo, Marianna, & Faber, Alice. (1990). Phonation Differences and the phonetic content of the tense-lax contrast in Utah English. Language Variation and Change 2:155204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feagin, Crawford. (2003). Vowel Shifting in the Southern States. In Nagle, S. & Sanders, S. (eds.) English in the Southern United States, 126–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fisher, Ronald. A. (1925). Statistical methods for research workers. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
Fought, Carmen. (1999). A majority sound change in a minority community: /u/-fronting in Chicano English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3: 523.Google Scholar
Fraser, Walter J. (1989). Charleston! Charleston!: The history of a Southern city. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Fridland, Valerie. (1999). The Southern Shift in Memphis, Tennessee. Language Variation and Change 11:267285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fridland, Valerie (2001). The social dimension of the Southern Vowel Shift: Gender, age and class. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5:233253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fridland, Valerie (2003). Network strength and the realization of the Southern Vowel Shift among African-Americans in Memphis, TN. American Speech 78:330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fridland, Valerie, & Bartlett, Kathryn. (2006). The social and linguistic conditioning of back vowel fronting across ethnic groups in Memphis, Tennessee. English Language and Linguistics 10(1):122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fridland, Valerie, Bartlett, Kathryn, & Kreuz, Roger. (2004). Do you hear what I hear? Experimental measurement of the perceptual salience of acoustically manipulated vowel variants by Southern speakers in Memphis, TN. Language Variation and Change 16:116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagiwara, Robert. (1997). Dialect variation and formant frequency: The American English vowels revisited. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 102: 655–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall-Lew, Lauren. (2004). “The Western Vowel Shift in Northern Arizona.” First qualifying paper, Stanford University. http://www.stanford.edn/~dialect/Hall-Lew%20QP1.pdfGoogle Scholar
Hall-Lew, Lauren (2005). One shift, two groups: When fronting alone is not enough. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 10(2): 105116.Google Scholar
Kroch, Anthony. (1996). Dialect and Style in the Speech of Upper Class Philadelphia. In Guy, G., Feagin, C., Schiffrin, D., & Baugh, J. (eds.), Towards a social science of language: Papers in honor of William Labov, vol. 1, Variation and Change in Language and Society, 2345. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
Kurath, Hans, & McDavid, Raven I. Jr. (1961). The pronunciation of English in the Atlantic States. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Labov, William. (1966). The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
Labov, William (1994). Principles of linguistic change volume 1: Internal factors. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Labov, William (2001). Principles of linguistic change volume 2: Social factors. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Labov, William (2006). Plotnik 08. Computer program. Available at: www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/Plotnik.html.Google Scholar
Labov, William, Yaeger, Malcah, & Steiner, Richard. (1972). A quantitative study of sound change in progress. Vol. 1. Report on National Science Foundation Contract NSF-GS-3287. Philadelphia: U.S. Regional Survey.Google Scholar
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon, & Boberg, Charles. (2006). The atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology, and sound change. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luthin, Herbert W. (1987). The story of California /ow/: The coming-of-age of English in California. In Denning, K. et al. (eds.), Variation in Language: NWAV-XV at Stanford. Stanford: Department of Linguistics, Stanford University. 312324.Google Scholar
McDavid, Raven I. Jr. (1948). Postvocalic /-r/ in South Carolina. American Speech 23:194203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDavid, Raven I. Jr. (1955). The position of the Charleston dialect. Publications of the American Dialect Society 23:3549. Reprinted in McDavid, Raven I., Jr. (1979). In W. Kretzschmar, Jr. (ed.) Dialects in Culture: Essays in General Dialectology. University of Alabama Press. 272–281.Google Scholar
Nearey, Terence M. (1977). Phonetic Feature Systems for Vowels. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
O'Cain, Raymond K. (1972). A social dialect survey of Charleston, South Carolina. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
Payne, Arvilla Chapin. (1976). The acquisition of the phonological system of a second dialect. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Primer, Sylvester. (1888). Charleston provincialisms. American Journal of Philology 9:198213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosen, Robert. (1992). A short history of Charleston. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, Erik R. (1989). The implications of /o/ fronting in Wilmington, North Carolina. American Speech 64:327333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, Erik R (2001). An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English. Publication of the American Dialect Society 85. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Torbert, Benjamin. (2004). Southern vowels and the social construction of salience. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University.Google Scholar
Ward, Michael. (2003). Portland Dialect Study: The fronting of /ow,o,uw/ in Portland, Oregon. M.A. thesis, Portland State University.Google Scholar
18
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The fronting of the back upgliding vowels in Charleston, South Carolina
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The fronting of the back upgliding vowels in Charleston, South Carolina
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The fronting of the back upgliding vowels in Charleston, South Carolina
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *