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Dispersal of Canarium euphyllum (Burseraceae), a large-seeded tree species, in a moist evergreen forest in Thailand

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2006

Shumpei Kitamura
Affiliation:
Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kamitanakami-Hirano, Otsu 520–2113, Japan Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Shunsuke Suzuki
Affiliation:
School of Environmental Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone 522–8533, Japan
Takakazu Yumoto
Affiliation:
Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kamitanakami-Hirano, Otsu 520–2113, Japan Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto 602–0878, Japan
Pilai Poonswad
Affiliation:
Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Phitaya Chuailua
Affiliation:
Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Kamol Plongmai
Affiliation:
Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Tamaki Maruhashi
Affiliation:
Department of Human and Culture, Musashi University, Nerima, Tokyo 176–8534, Japan
Naohiko Noma
Affiliation:
School of Environmental Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone 522–8533, Japan
Chumphon Suckasam
Affiliation:
National Parks Division, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Phaholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Abstract

We investigated the dispersal of a large-seeded tree species, Canarium euphyllum (Burseraceae), in the moist evergreen forests of the Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. By combining direct observations of fruit consumption in tree canopies (543 h) and the camera-trapping observations of fallen fruit consumption on the forest floor (175 camera-days), we identified the frugivore assemblage that foraged on the fruits of C. euphyllum and assessed their role in seed dispersal and seed predation. In the canopy, our results showed that seeds were dispersed by a limited set of frugivores, one pigeon and four hornbill species, and predated by two species of squirrel. On the forest floor, seven mammal species consumed fallen fruits. A combination of high rates of fruit removal and short visiting times of mountain imperial pigeons (Ducula badia) and hornbills (Buceros bicornis, Aceros undulatus, Anorrhinus austeni and Anthracoceros albirostris) led us to conclude that these large frugivorous birds provide effective seed dispersal for this tree species, in terms of quantity. These frugivorous species often have low tolerance to negative human impacts and loss of these dispersers would have severe deleterious consequences for the successful regeneration of C. euphyllum.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
2006 Cambridge University Press

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Dispersal of Canarium euphyllum (Burseraceae), a large-seeded tree species, in a moist evergreen forest in Thailand
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