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Modernist Fantasias: The Recuperation of a Concept

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2020


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1 Häusler, Josef, Spiegel der Neuen Musik: Donaueschingen: Chronik – Tendenzen – Werkbesprechungen (Kassel, Stuttgart and Weimar: Bärenreiter and J. B. Metzler, 1996), 439.Google Scholar

2 Xenakis, Iannis, ‘La crise de la musique sérielle’, Gravesaner Blätter, 1 (1955), 2–4; repr. in Xenakis, Kéleütha: Écrits, with preface and notes by Benoît Gibson (Paris: L'Arche, 1994), 39–43.Google Scholar

3 While 1955 was a relatively radical year, the 1956 Musiktage began with a whole concert of music by Honegger, then in 1957 there was a whole concert of jazz. See Häusler, Spiegel der Neuen Musik, 440–1.Google Scholar

4 Vermeulen, Matthijs, ‘Notes on my Sixth Symphony’ (1961), <> (accessed 2 July 2019); Ton Braas, ‘Matthijs Vermeulen's Symphonies’, Key Notes, 25 (1988–9), 18–24; ‘Matthijs Vermeulen (1888–1967)’, <> (accessed 28 June 2019).+(accessed+2+July+2019);+Ton+Braas,+‘Matthijs+Vermeulen's+Symphonies’,+Key+Notes,+25+(1988–9),+18–24;+‘Matthijs+Vermeulen+(1888–1967)’,++(accessed+28+June+2019).>Google Scholar

5 Haefeli, Anton, IGNM: Die Internationale Gesellschaft für Neue Musik: Ihre Geschichte von 1922 bis zur Gegenwart (Zurich: Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag, 1982), 518; Richard Toop, György Ligeti (London: Phaidon Press, 1999), 224.Google Scholar

6 Haefeli, IGNM, 517–18.Google Scholar

7 Intermedial – kontrovers – experimentell: Das Atelier Mary Bauermeister in Köln 1960–62, ed. Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln (Cologne: Emons Verlag, 1993), 24–39.Google Scholar

8 Riedl, Josef Anton, ‘NEUE MUSIK München, Siemens-Studio für Elektronische Musik und Musica Viva (1953–1963)’, ‘Eine Sprache der Gegenwart’: Musica Viva 1945–1995, ed. Renate Ulm (Mainz: Piper Schott, 1995), 65–74.Google Scholar

9 See Nauck, Gisela, Dieter Schnebel: Lesegänge durch Leben und Werk (Mainz: Schott, 2001), 82–8, 348.Google Scholar

10 Bylander, Cynthia E., ‘The Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music 1956–1961: Its Goals, Structures, Programs, and People’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1989), 195–6.Google Scholar

11 Angela Ida de Benedictis, ‘Bruno Maderna e lo Studio di Fonologia della Rai di Milano: Musica d'arte e d'uso tra creazione, ricercar e invenzione’, Musica/Realtà, XXX/91 (2010), 44–75 (pp. 52, 58).Google Scholar

12 Bylander, ‘The Warsaw Autumn International Festival’, 468–9.Google Scholar

13 For more information on programming in this series, which featured the Second Viennese School, Messiaen, Stockhausen and some works of Berio, Kagel, Maderna, Nono and even Henze, as well as Stravinsky, see Jésus Aguila, Le Domaine Musical: Pierre Boulez et vingt ans de création contemporaine (Paris: Fayard, 1992), 159–206, 219–22.Google Scholar

14 Im Zenit der Moderne: Die Internationalen Ferienkurse für Neue Musik Darmstadt, ed. Gianmario Borio and Hermann Danuser, 4 vols. (Freiburg: Rombach, 1997), iii, 572–606.Google Scholar

15 Zwanzig Jahre Musik im Westdeutschen Rundfunk: Eine Dokumentation der Hauptabteilung Musik 1948–1968, ed. Westdeutscher Rundfunk (Cologne: Westdeutscher Rundfunk, 1968), 102–210.Google Scholar

16 ‘Festival Internazionale di Musica Contemporanea della Biennale di Venezia: Programmi 1930–1972’, <> (accessed 28 June 2019).+(accessed+28+June+2019).>Google Scholar

17 Kerman, Joseph, Contemplating Music: Challenges to Musicology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), 20–1. For a critique of Kerman's view and historical inaccuracies, see Iddon, Martin, ‘Darmstadt Schools: Darmstadt as a Plural Phenomenon’, Tempo, 65/256 (April 2011), 2–8 (pp. 3–5).Google Scholar

18 McClary, Susan, ‘Terminal Prestige: The Case of Avant-Garde Music Competition’, Cultural Critique, 12 (spring 1989), 57–81; Rose Rosengard Subotnick, ‘The Challenge of Contemporary Music’, Developing Variations: Style and Ideology in Western Music (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 265–93; Lawrence Kramer, Classical Music and Postmodern Knowledge (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 1995); Georgina Born, Rationalizing Culture: IRCAM, Boulez, and the Institutionalization of the Musical Avant-Garde (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, 6 vols. (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), iv: The Early Twentieth Century and v: The Late Twentieth Century.Google Scholar

19 For historical views of this phenomenon in Britain and the USA, see Collini, Stefan, Absent Minds: Intellectuals in Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), esp. pp. 15–44, 69–89; Duncan Stone, ‘Deconstructing the Gentleman Amateur’ (2019), Cultural and Social History, <> (accessed 5 July 2019); and Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963). For recent examples relating to Donald Trump and the 2016 Brexit referendum campaign, see Moss, Walter, ‘The Crassness and Anti-Intellectualism of President Donald Trump’ (2018), History News Network, <> (accessed 4 July 2019), and Henry Mance, ‘Britain Has Had Enough of Experts, Says Gove’, Financial Times, 3 June 2016. For a rigorous, nuanced treatment of the subject for general readers, see Nichols, Tom, The Death of Expertise: The Campaign against Established Knowledge and Why It Matters (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).+(accessed+5+July+2019);+and+Richard+Hofstadter,+Anti-Intellectualism+in+American+Life+(New+York:+Alfred+A.+Knopf,+1963).+For+recent+examples+relating+to+Donald+Trump+and+the+2016+Brexit+referendum+campaign,+see+Moss,+Walter,+‘The+Crassness+and+Anti-Intellectualism+of+President+Donald+Trump’+(2018),+History+News+Network,++(accessed+4+July+2019),+and+Henry+Mance,+‘Britain+Has+Had+Enough+of+Experts,+Says+Gove’,+Financial+Times,+3+June+2016.+For+a+rigorous,+nuanced+treatment+of+the+subject+for+general+readers,+see+Nichols,+Tom,+The+Death+of+Expertise:+The+Campaign+against+Established+Knowledge+and+Why+It+Matters+(New+York+and+Oxford:+Oxford+University+Press,+2017).>Google Scholar

20 Kramer, Classical Music and Postmodern Knowledge, 6–14.Google Scholar

21 See in particular Björn Heile, ‘Darmstadt as Other: British and American Responses to Musical Modernism’, Twentieth-Century Music, 1 (2004), 161–78 (pp. 167–9), and Richard Hermann, ‘Reflexive Postmodern Anthropology Meets Musical “Modernism”: Georgina Born's Rationalizing Culture: IRCAM, Boulez and the Institutionalization of the Musical Avant-Garde’, Music Theory Online, 3/5 (1997), <> (accessed 23 June 2019). A wider critique of Born's methods and influence will be found in Joan Arnau Pàmies, ‘Listening as Precondition, or Musicology with Ears’, Rethinking Contemporary Musicology: Perspectives on Interdisciplinarity, Skills and Deskilling, ed. Ian Pace and Peter Tregear (London and New York: Routledge, forthcoming 2020).+(accessed+23+June+2019).+A+wider+critique+of+Born's+methods+and+influence+will+be+found+in+Joan+Arnau+Pàmies,+‘Listening+as+Precondition,+or+Musicology+with+Ears’,+Rethinking+Contemporary+Musicology:+Perspectives+on+Interdisciplinarity,+Skills+and+Deskilling,+ed.+Ian+Pace+and+Peter+Tregear+(London+and+New+York:+Routledge,+forthcoming+2020).>Google Scholar

22 Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, v, 6–22. A comprehensive critique of Taruskin's ideas and methods can be found in Franklin Cox, ‘Review: Richard Taruskin's The Oxford History of Western Music’ (two parts), <> and <> (accessed 28 June 2019).+and++(accessed+28+June+2019).>Google Scholar

23 See my ‘The Cold War in Germany as Ideological Weapon for Anti-Modernists' (2011), <> (accessed 24 June 2019); and on the specific claim, from Frances Stonor Saunders, that the Darmstadt courses were initiated by the US occupying forces, see Beal, Amy, New Music, New Allies: American Experimental Music in West Germany from the Zero Hour to Reunification (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 2006), 38; Michael Custodis, Traditionen – Koalitionen – Visionen: Wolfgang Steinecke und die Internationalen Ferienkurse in Darmstadt (Saarbrücken: Pfau, 2010), 48–9; Martin Iddon, New Music at Darmstadt: Nono, Stockhausen, Cage, and Boulez (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 19–22; and Ian Pace, ‘The Reconstruction of Post-War West German New Music during the Early Allied Occupation (1945–46), and its Roots in the Weimar Republic and Third Reich (1918–45)’ (Ph.D. dissertation, Cardiff University, 2018), 4, 168–73, 342–8.+(accessed+24+June+2019);+and+on+the+specific+claim,+from+Frances+Stonor+Saunders,+that+the+Darmstadt+courses+were+initiated+by+the+US+occupying+forces,+see+Beal,+Amy,+New+Music,+New+Allies:+American+Experimental+Music+in+West+Germany+from+the+Zero+Hour+to+Reunification+(Berkeley+and+Los+Angeles,+CA,+and+London:+University+of+California+Press,+2006),+38;+Michael+Custodis,+Traditionen+–+Koalitionen+–+Visionen:+Wolfgang+Steinecke+und+die+Internationalen+Ferienkurse+in+Darmstadt+(Saarbrücken:+Pfau,+2010),+48–9;+Martin+Iddon,+New+Music+at+Darmstadt:+Nono,+Stockhausen,+Cage,+and+Boulez+(Cambridge:+Cambridge+University+Press,+2013),+19–22;+and+Ian+Pace,+‘The+Reconstruction+of+Post-War+West+German+New+Music+during+the+Early+Allied+Occupation+(1945–46),+and+its+Roots+in+the+Weimar+Republic+and+Third+Reich+(1918–45)’+(Ph.D.+dissertation,+Cardiff+University,+2018),+4,+168–73,+342–8.>Google Scholar

24 Frolova-Walker, Marina, ‘An Inclusive History for a Divided World?’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 143 (2018), 1–20. Frolova-Walker writes (p. 3) that ‘Taruskin showed how the advance of ultra-modernism after the Second World War had been conditioned by cold-war ideology and that it was ultimately financed by the CIA’ whilst conceding that Taruskin's work was dependent upon the secondary literature of others, including that of Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London: Granta, 2000), as well as Ian Wellens, Music on the Frontline: Nicolas Nabokov's Struggle against Communism and Middlebrow Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002). Taruskin does not actually cite Wellens, who on the basis of intense study of the archives of Nicolas Nabokov, secretary-general of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, argues against Stonor Saunders, and concludes that there is no evidence that Nabokov ‘could see some sort of political advantage in promoting serialism’, and that ‘a close study of Nabokov, his writings and his CCF work simply does not support that [Stonor Saunders's thesis]’ (p. 122). Nabokov's various letters make clear his indifference to post-war serialism (presumably Frolova-Walker's ‘ultra-modernism’), in contrast to his huge enthusiasm for Stravinsky, and contain no reference to Cage. Wellens thus concludes that ‘the New Music was no CIA plot’ (p. 125) and ‘Nabokov's project was probably too peripheral within the contemporary music world to force a wholesale revision of music history’ (p. 126). Wellens's book thus undermines Frolova-Walker's claims rather than bolstering them, unless she means something else by ‘ultra-modernism’.Google Scholar

25 Pfitzner, Hans, Futuristengefahr: Bei Gelegenheit von Busoni's Ästhetik (Leipzig: Süddeutsche Monatshefte, 1917), reproduced in Pfitzner, Gesammelte Schriften, 3 vols. (Augsburg: Benno Filser-Verlag, 1926–9), i, 185–223; Pfitzner, Die neue Aesthetik der musikalischen Impotenz: Ein Verwesungssymptom? (Munich: Verlag der Süddeutschen Monatshefte, 1920).Google Scholar

26 See John, Eckhard, Musik-Bolschewismus: Die Politisierung der Musik in Deutschland 1918–1938 (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1994), for a comprehensive study of this Weimar-era term.Google Scholar

27 Eichenauer, Richard, Musik und Rasse (Munich: Lehmanns, 1932), 273–4.Google Scholar

28 ‘“Levïy” flang sovremennoy muzïki’, Muzyka i revolyutsiya, 1 (January 1927), 3–7; trans. Marina Frolova-Walker and Jonathan Walker as ‘The “Left” Wing of Contemporary Music’, Music and Soviet Power, 1917–1932, ed. Frolova-Walker and Walker (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2012), 188–92.Google Scholar

29 See for example Yuriy Keldïsh, ‘Balet “Stal′noy skok” i yego avtor – Prokof′yev’, Proletarsiy muzikant, 6 (1929), 12–19; trans. Frolova-Walker and Walker as ‘The Ballet Steps of Steel and its Composer, Prokofiev’, Music and Soviet Power, ed. Frolova-Walker and Walker, 243–52.Google Scholar

30 See the full transcript of the proceedings leading up to the 1948 Zhdanov decree on music in Alexander Werth, Musical Uproar in Moscow (London: Turnstile Press, 1949), 47–103.Google Scholar

31 Pleasants, Henry, The Agony of Modern Music (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955). Pleasants was head of the CIA branch in the West German capital of Bonn from 1950, and very close to the West German intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen, but this fact has never to my knowledge been employed in arguments about US/Western cultural policy. See James H. Critchfield, Partners at the Creation: The Men behind Postwar Germany's Defence and Intelligence Establishments (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003), 102, and for more detail Agilolf Keßelring, Die Organisation Gehlen und die Neuformierung des Militärs in der Bundesrepublik (Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag, 2017).Google Scholar

32 Lipman, Samuel, Music after Modernism (New York: Basic Books, 1979); Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997).Google Scholar

33 Straus, Joseph N., ‘The Myth of Serial “Tyranny” in the 1950s and 1960s’, Musical Quarterly, 83 (1999), 301–43; Heile, ‘Darmstadt as Other’, 161–78; Iddon, ‘Darmstadt Schools’; and Iddon, ‘Spectres of Darmstadt’, Tempo, 67/263 (January 2013), 61–7.Google Scholar

34 From the period from the late 1980s until the early 2000s in which anglophone scholarship on postmodernism flourished, there were certainly some extremely significant publications, especially those relating to musical borrowing, including Joseph Nathan Straus, Remaking the Past: Musical Modernism and the Influence of the Tonal Tradition (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 1990), and Glenn Watkins, Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture, and Collage from Stravinsky to the Postmodernists (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1994). For a wider critical overview of scholarship on borrowing, including earlier traditions of such work, see Pace, Ian, ‘Negotiating Borrowing, Genre and Mediation in the Piano Music of Finnissy: Strategies and Aesthetics’, Critical Perspectives on Michael Finnissy: Bright Futures, Dark Pasts, ed. Ian Pace and Nigel McBride (Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019), 57–103.Google Scholar

35 This phenomenon is chronicled in Douglas Mao and Rebecca L. Walkowitz, ‘Introduction: Modernisms Bad and New’, Bad Modernisms, ed. Mao and Walkowitz (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006), 1–18; and Mao and Walkowitz, ‘The New Modernist Studies’, Proceedings of the Modern Language Association, 123 (2008), 737–48. This school of thought has been criticized on grounds of adherence to antiquated liberal notions of freedom unaffected by changing historical circumstances, in Max Brzezinski, ‘The New Modernist Studies: What's Left of Political Formalism?’, Minnesota Review, 76 (spring 2011), 109–25; similar arguments were earlier given a more rigorous Marxist theorization by Perry Anderson in his critique ‘Marshall Berman: Modernity and Revolution’ (1983, with postscript 1985), in A Zone of Engagement (London and New York: Verso, 1992), 25–55.Google Scholar

36 As was evident just from the titles of Harry Levin, ‘What Was Modernism?’, Massachusetts Review, 1 (1960), 609–30, and Raymond Williams, ‘When Was Modernism?’ (1987), in The Politics of Modernism: Against the New Conformists (London: Verso, 1989), 31–6. A key text associated with New Modernist Studies, Marjorie Perloff's 21st-Century Modernism: The ‘New’ Poetics (Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), argues that at the beginning of the new century, ‘the modern/postmodern divide has emerged as more apparent than real’ (p. 164), though appears to accept that in literature, the previous few decades represented something of a break, so she is calling essentially for a type of revival. On the other hand, Michael Levenson, in his Modernism (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2011), continues to adhere to a view of modernism as a phenomenon of an earlier era, declaring at the very outset that ‘Modernism may have disappeared as a living cultural force’ (p. 1), and focusing almost entirely on the earlier half of the twentieth century.Google Scholar

37 Modernism, ed. Malcolm Bradbury and James McFarlane (London: Penguin, 1976); Peter Nicholls, Modernisms: A Literary Guide (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995).Google Scholar

38 Butler, Christopher, Early Modernism: Literature, Music and Painting in Europe 1900–1916 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).Google Scholar

39 See Whittall, Arnold, ‘Tippett and the Modernist Mainstream’, Michael Tippett O.M.: A Celebration, ed. Geraint Lewis (Tunbridge Wells: Baton Press, 1985), 109–15; Whittall, Musical Composition in the Twentieth Century (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 286–324, 388–9, and especially Whittall, ‘Individualism and Accessibility: The Moderate Mainstream’, The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music, ed. Nicholas Cook and Anthony Pople (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 364–94.Google Scholar

40 Albright, Daniel, Untwisting the Serpent: Modernism in Music, Literature, and Other Arts (Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press, 2000).Google Scholar

41 Ibid., 29 (italics original).Google Scholar

42 Albright, Daniel, Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources (Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press, 2004).Google Scholar

43 Frisch, Walter, German Modernism: Music and the Arts (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 2005). Three years previously, Carol A. Hess had published another regional study, Manuel de Falla and Modernism in Spain, 1898–1935 (Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press, 2002).Google Scholar

44 British Music and Modernism, 1895–1960, ed. Matthew Riley (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010); Philip Rupprecht, British Musical Modernism: The Manchester Group and their Contemporaries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015); Barbara L. Kelly, Music and Ultra-Modernism in France: A Fragile Consensus, 1913–1939 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2013); Ben Earle, Luigi Dallapiccola and Musical Modernism in Fascist Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013); Stephen Downes, Music and Decadence in European Modernism: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).Google Scholar

45 Rethinking Musical Modernism, ed. Dejan Despić and Melita Milin (Belgrade: Institute of Musicology, 2008).Google Scholar

46 The Modernist Legacy: Essays on New Music, ed. Björn Heile (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009).Google Scholar

47 Metzer, David, Musical Modernism at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).Google Scholar

48 Musik in der Moderne/Music and Modernism, ed. Federico Celestini, Gregor Kokorz and Julian Johnson (Vienna: Böhlau, 2011); Transformations of Musical Modernism, ed. Erling E. Guldbrandsen and Julian Johnson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).Google Scholar

49 Harper-Scott, J. P. E., The Quilting Points of Musical Modernism: Revolution, Reaction, and William Walton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).Google Scholar

50 Just as some New Modernist Studies scholars have chosen to use the term to refer to any writing published in the first half of the twentieth century, stripping the term of any stylistic or evaluative meaning. See Mao and Walkowitz, ‘Introduction’, 1–2.Google Scholar

51 Janz, Tobias, Zur Genealogie der musikalischen Moderne (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2014).Google Scholar

52 I am imagining something similar to The Oxford Handbook of Modernisms, ed. Peter Brooker, Andrzej Gasiorek, Deborah Longworth and Andrew Thacker (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), or The Cambridge History of Modernism, ed. Vincent Sherry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), but focused exclusively on music. This would be something quite different from a simple history of twentieth-century music.Google Scholar

53 Heile and Wilson (p. 3) claim James Hepokoski's Sibelius: Symphony no. 5 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) as the beginning of this tradition, followed by J. P. E. Harper-Scott, Edward Elgar, Modernist (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Daniel M. Grimley, Carl Nielsen and the Idea of Modernism (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2010); Christopher Chowrimootoo, ‘“Britten Minor”: Constructing the Modernist Canon’, Twentieth-Century Music, 13 (2016), 261–90; and Ben Earle, ‘Modernism and Reification in the Music of Frank Bridge’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 141 (2016), 335–402.Google Scholar

54 Whittall, Arnold, Exploring Twentieth-Century Music: Tradition and Innovation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 189.Google Scholar

55 Johnson, Julian, Out of Time: Music and the Making of Modernity (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 7–8.Google Scholar

56 Meyer, Leonard B., Style and Music: Theory, History and Ideology (Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 337–52; Meyer, ‘Postlude’, Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture, rev. edn (Chicago, IL, and London: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 317–49 (p. 331).Google Scholar

57 Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, iv, esp. pp. 1–58, 131–363, 447–93.Google Scholar

58 This is distinct from an earlier model found in such texts as David Lodge, The Modes of Modern Writing: Metaphor, Metonymy, and the Typology of Modern Literature (London: Edward Arnold, 1977); Christopher Butler, After the Wake: An Essay on the Contemporary Avant-Garde (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980); and, somewhat later, Tyrus Miller, Late Modernism: Politics, Fiction and the Arts between the World Wars (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 1999), in which modernism is essentially seen as bounded by the Second World War. Miller draws upon Brian McHale, Postmodernist Fiction (London and New York: Routledge, 1989), and allows for a type of transitional period represented in a literary context by such writers as Samuel Beckett, Vladimir Nabokov, Thomas Pynchon and Alain Robbe-Grillet before the advent of postmodernism, while the earlier writers tend towards postmodernism as an immediate post-1945 phenomenon (which for Butler includes the music of Boulez, Cage, Henze, René Leibowitz, Nono and Stockhausen), which refocuses, recontextualizes and otherwise modifies earlier modernism rather than placing itself in direct opposition to it. This view was anticipated in Ihab Hassan, The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971; 2nd edn, 1982). Butler, however, moved to a different periodization in his Postmodernism: A Very Short Introduction (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), in which Boulez, Henze and Stockhausen from the 1950s are ‘late modernist music’ (p. 84), although Nono and Henze (presumably later works) are ‘leftist versions of postmodernism’ (p. 76). Berio's Sinfonia (1968–9) and works of Ligeti, Alfred Schnittke and Tōru Takemitsu are linked by Butler to postmodernist art, though contrasted with operas of John Adams, Thomas Adès, Harrison Birtwistle and Mark-Anthony Turnage (in which Butler finds ‘a loyalty to a coherent, ontologically relatively stable world’), themselves in contrast to Glass's Einstein on the Beach (1975–6) (pp. 73–6).Google Scholar

59 Berman, Art, Preface to Modernism (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 27–88. I am grateful to Franklin Cox for recommending this text to me some time ago. Its arguments on the importance of sub-periodization of modernism can be related to those of Perry Anderson on the heterogeneity of the different stages of capitalism (A Zone of Engagement, 30–1, 46–7), but are sharply at odds with the relatively ahistorical New Modernist Studies.Google Scholar

60 Jonathan Swift to Alexander Pope, 23 June 1737, in The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, ed. David Woolley, 4 vols. (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2007), iv, 446.Google Scholar

61 Jean-Jacques Rousseau to M. de Franquières, 15 January 1769, in Rousseau, Correspondance générale, ed. Théophile Dufour, 20 vols. (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1923), xix, 55; Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity, rev. edn (New York and London: Penguin, 1988), 17–18.Google Scholar

62 Sean Latham and Gayle Rogers, Modernism: Evolution of an Idea (London: Bloomsbury, 2015), 20–1. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote on 8 August 1842 of ‘such modernisms as astral lamps, card-tables, gilded Cologne-Bottles, silver taper-stands, and bronze and alabaster flower-vases’: Passages from the American Note-Books of Nathaniel Hawthorne, 2 vols. (Boston: James R. Osgood & Co., 1875), ii, 72.Google Scholar

63 Périn, Charles, Le modernisme dans l’église (Paris: Librairie Victor Lecoffre, 1881).Google Scholar

64 Cascudo, Teresa, ‘Adesso ci vuol altra cosa: Primeros usus de los neologismos modernism y modernista en el discurso periodístico sobre música en españa (ca. 1890–1910)’, Revista de musicologia, 40 (2017), 513–42 (pp. 517–18).Google Scholar

65 A good overview of the debates around Catholic modernism can be found in Charles Palermo, Modernism and Authority: Picasso and his Milieu around 1900 (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2015), 69–88.Google Scholar

66 It first appeared in a book title in Rolfe Arnold Scott-James, Modernism and Romance (London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1908), and was firmly established by the time of publication of A Survey of Modernist Poetry, ed. Laura Riding and Robert Graves (London: William Heinemann, 1927). See Calinescu, Matei, Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-Garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1987), 80–5.Google Scholar

67 One prominent exception was Cyril Scott and A. Eaglefield Hull, The Philosophy of Modernism: Its Connection with Music (London: Waverley, c.1925; originally published 1917).Google Scholar

68 This term was employed at least as early as 1909 to describe Ravel's Gaspard de la nuit. See Bhogal, Gurminder Kaur, Details and Consequence: Ornament, Music, and Art in Paris (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 161. The major source texts are Edmondstoune Duncan, Ultra-Modernism in Music: A Treatise on the Latter-Day Revolution in Musical Art (London: Winthrop Rogers, 1915), and Katherine Ruth Willoughby Heyman, The Relation of Ultramodern to Archaic Music (Boston, MA: Small, Maynard & Co., 1921), while the use of this archaic term is also explored in Rita H. Mead, ‘Henry Cowell's New Music Society’, Journal of Musicology, 1 (1982), 449–63 (p. 450); Jenny Doctor, The BBC and Ultra-Modern Music, 1922–1936: Shaping a Nation's Tastes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Carol J. Oja, Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 23; and Kelly, Music and Ultra-Modernism in France, 5–6.Google Scholar

69 Latham and Rogers, Modernism, 223. There has been a recent revival of modernité, for example in Célestin Deliège, Cinquante ans de modernité musicale: De Darmstadt à l'IRCAM, contribution historiographique à une musicologie critique (Sprimont: Mardaga, 2003), and Musique et modernité en France (1900–1945), ed. Sylvain Caron, François de Medicis and Michel Duchesneau (Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 2006).Google Scholar

70 Seidl, Arthur, Moderner Geist in der deutschen Tonkunst (Berlin: Harmonie, 1900); Paul Moos, Moderne Musikästhetik in Deutschland: Historisch-kritisch Uebersicht (Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger, 1902); Leopold Schmidt, Die moderne Musik (Berlin: Simion, 1905).Google Scholar

71 Dahlhaus, Carl, by contrast, viewed Wagner as a ‘neo-Romantic’ composer who managed to mediate between early Romanticism and the Kulturkritik of the end of the century. See Dahlhaus, Between Romanticism and Modernism, trans. Mary Whittall (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 1980), 4–11.Google Scholar

72 Bekker, Paul, ‘Neue Musik’ (1919), Gesammelte Schriften, 3 vols. (Berlin: Schuster & Loeffler, 1921–3), i: Kritische Zeitbilder, 85–118.Google Scholar

73 This is traced in detail in Christoph von Blumröder, Der Begriff ‘Neue Musik’ im 20. Jahrhundert (Munich and Salzburg: Emil Katzbichler, 1981).Google Scholar

74 Cascudo, ‘Adesso ci vuol altra cosa’, 518.Google Scholar

75 Calinescu, Five Faces of Modernity, 71–80; for more detail, see Ned J. Davison, The Concept of Modernism in Hispanic Criticism (Boulder, CO: Preutt Press, 1966), and Kelly Comfort, European Aestheticism and Spanish American Modernismo: Artist Protagonists and the Philosophy of Art for Art's Sake (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).Google Scholar

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77 This term may have first been used by the philosopher Victor Cousin in 1818 and was developed by Benjamin Constant, but also had roots in the aesthetics of Kant, Lessing, Schiller and others. See Egan, Rose Frances, The Genesis of the Theory of ‘Art for Art's Sake’ in Germany and in England (Northampton, MA, and Paris: Smith College, 1921).Google Scholar

78 Seiler, Robert Morris, ‘Introduction’, Walter Pater: The Critical Heritage, ed. Seiler (London and New York: Routledge, 1995), 1–45 (pp. 6–8).Google Scholar

79 Wagner, Richard, ‘Art and Revolution’ (1849), The Art-Work of the Future and Other Works, trans. William Ashton Ellis (Lincoln, NE, and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 21–68 (p. 31).Google Scholar

80 On the possibility of Liszt as a modernist, see Saffle, Michael, ‘Liszt and the Birth of the New Europe: Reflections on Modernity, Wagner, the Oratorio, and “Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth”’, Liszt and the Birth of Modern Europe: Music as a Mirror of Religious, Political, Cultural, and Aesthetic Transformations, ed. Michael Saffle and Rossana Dalmonte (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2003), 3–24; and especially Shay Loya, Liszt's Transcultural Modernism and the Hungarian-Gypsy Tradition (Rochester, NY, and Woodbridge: University of Rochester Press and Boydell & Brewer, 2011), 17–57, 118–53.Google Scholar

81 I must declare an interest here, as the supervisor of Cagney's Ph.D. dissertation, ‘Synthesis and Deviation: New Perspectives on the Emergence of the French Courant spectral, 1969–1974’ (City, University of London, 2015), from which much of the material in this article is taken.Google Scholar

82 These are here married to an even cruder rendition of postwar modernism, and an anecdotal dismissal of Straus's careful collection of data. See Susan McClary, ‘The Lure of the Sublime: Revisiting the Modernist Project’, Transformations of Musical Modernism, ed. Guldbrandsen and Johnson, 21–35.Google Scholar

83 This is of course the term used by Stravinsky in the Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1947), 121–35, although this is not referenced by Grant.Google Scholar

84 Knapik extends the critique of John Butt in Playing with History: The Historical Approach to Musical Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 14–24.Google Scholar

85 As compared with Transformations of Musical Modernism, ed. Guldbrandsen and Johnson, which includes three substantial contributions on the subject.Google Scholar

86 Haynes, Bruce, The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); Daniel Leech-Wilkinson, ‘Recordings and Histories of Performance Style’, The Cambridge Companion to Recorded Music, ed. Nicholas Cook, Eric Clarke, Daniel Leech-Wilkinson and John Rink (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 246–62; Nicholas Cook, Beyond the Score: Music as Performance (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). For the beginnings of a critique of some of this work, including its highly partial use of limited evidence, see Pace, Ian, ‘The New State of Play in Performance Studies’, Music and Letters, 98 (2017), 281–92.Google Scholar

87 Fabian, Dorottya, ‘The Meaning of Authenticity and the Early Music Movement: A Historical Review’, International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 32 (2001), 153–67; Fabian, Bach Performance Practice 1945–1975: A Review of Sound Recordings and Literature (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003); Fabian, ‘Is Diversity in Musical Performance Truly in Decline? The Evidence of Sound Recordings’, Context: A Journal of Music Research, 31 (2006), 165–80.Google Scholar

88 Trudu, Antonio, La ‘scuola’ di Darmstadt: I Ferienkurse dal 1946 a oggi (Milan: Ricordi, 1992); Von Kranichstein zur Gegenwart, ed. Rudolf Stephan, Lothar Kessel, Otto Tomek, Klaus Trapp and Christopher Fox (Darmstadt: Daco, 1996); Im Zenit der Moderne, ed. Borio and Danuser; Iddon, New Music at Darmstadt; Barbara Haas, Karl Amadeus Hartmann 1905–1963: Zeitzeugen und Dokumente zum 100. Geburstag des Komponisten (Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag, 2004); Carola Arlt, Von den Juryfreien zur Musica Viva: Karl Amadeus Hartmann und die Neue Musik in München (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2010); Lisa Jakelski, Making New Music in Cold War Poland: The Warsaw Autumn Festival, 1956–1968 (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2017).Google Scholar

89 This contrasts with a very rigorous and impeccably researched engagement with the vexed questions of the funding of the Ferienkurse in Iddon's New Music at Darmstadt.Google Scholar

90 No comprehensive scholarly history yet exists of this institution. However, an archived web resource on the organization, James Deaville, ‘Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein’, may be found at <> (accessed 1 July 2019). Despite its title, the Musikverein programmed composers from a range of countries, generally those in accordance with the aesthetic outlook of the Neudeutsche Schule.+(accessed+1+July+2019).+Despite+its+title,+the+Musikverein+programmed+composers+from+a+range+of+countries,+generally+those+in+accordance+with+the+aesthetic+outlook+of+the+Neudeutsche+Schule.>Google Scholar

91 See Pace, , ‘The Reconstruction of Post-War West German New Music’, 20–30, for an overview of these; and for a massive and comprehensive study, see Thrun, Martin, Neue Musik im deutschen Musikleben bis 1933, 2 vols. (Bonn: Orpheus-Verlag, 1995).Google Scholar

92 Born, Rationalizing Culture; Anne Shreffler, ‘Ideologies of Serialism: Stravinsky's Threni and the Congress for Cultural Freedom’, Music and the Aesthetics of Modernity, ed. Karol Berger and Anthony Newcomb (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Department of Music, 2005), 217–45.Google Scholar

93 Osborne, Peter, ‘The Fiction of the Contemporary: Speculative Collectivity and Transnationalism in the Atlas Group’, Aesthetics and Contemporary Art, ed. Armen Avanessian and Luke Skrebowski (Berlin: Sternberg, 2011), 101–23.Google Scholar

94 Clarke, David, ‘Elvis and Darmstadt, or Twentieth-Century Music and the Politics of Cultural Pluralism’, Twentieth-Century Music, 4 (2007), 3–45.Google Scholar

95 George Yúdice argues in ‘Rethinking the Theory of the Avant-Garde from the Periphery’, Modernism and its Margins: Reinscribing Cultural Modernity from Spain and Latin America, ed. Anthony Geist and Jose B. Monleón (New York and London: Garland, 1999; repr. New York: Routledge, 2015), 52–80, that ‘The unwritten history of the avant-garde is the history of these “peripheries” [so-called primitive works brought to western Europe from Africa, America, Oceania, the Near and the Far Orient]’ (p. 54), although he seems primarily concerned with appropriating such peripheries in order to charge Western modernists with domination and imperialism, rather than consider anything fruitful which might have come from such interactions.Google Scholar

96 Such as Andreas Huyssen, After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (London: Macmillan, 1986); Steven Whiting, Satie the Bohemian: From Cabaret to Concert Hall (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Bernard Gendron, Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002); and Ronald Schleifer, Modernism and Popular Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).Google Scholar

97 Potter, Rachel, Modernism and Democracy: Literary Culture 1900–1930 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).Google Scholar

98 Williams, ‘When Was Modernism?’, 34.Google Scholar

99 See Bowler, Anne, ‘Politics as Art: Italian Futurism and Fascism’, Theory and Society, 20 (1991), 763–94.Google Scholar

100 See Chessa, Luciano, Luigi Russolo, Futurist: Noise, Visual Arts, and the Occult (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, and London: University of California Press, 2012), 8–10, 225–9. This is one of a range of recent books considering some of the occult interests of leading modernists, a type of scholarship which has not yet really been explored for music.Google Scholar

101 Debord, Guy, ‘Theory of the Dérive’ (1958), Situationist International Anthology, rev. and expanded edn, ed. and trans. Ken Knabb (Berkeley, CA: Bureau of Public Secrets, 2006), 62–6 (p. 62). Debord adds that ‘In a dérive one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there’ (ibid.).Google Scholar

102 Critical Composition Today, ed. Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf (Hofheim: Wolke Verlag, 2006); Nicolaus A. Huber, ‘Critical Composition’, trans. Petra Music and Philipp Blume, Contemporary Music Review, 27 (2008), 565–8.Google Scholar

103 The study of populism is at the time of writing a flourishing area of political science, but has made little headway in musicology. Important texts summarizing common findings on populism include Margaret Canovan, The People (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity, 2005); Jan-Werner Müller, What Is Populism? (London: Penguin, 2017); and Cas Mudde, Populism: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017). An older text which remains highly relevant to the issues above is Jim McGuigan, Cultural Populism (London: Routledge, 1992), as is Catherine Liu, American Idyll: Academic Antielitism as Cultural Critique (Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 2011).Google Scholar

104 O'Connor, Kieran, ‘Don't They Represent Us?’ A Discussion between Jacques Rancière and Ernesto Laclau’ (2015), <> (accessed 18 August 2019); Jacques Rancière, Hatred of Democracy (London: Verso, 2009), 49, cited in Adlington, p. 230.+(accessed+18+August+2019);+Jacques+Rancière,+Hatred+of+Democracy+(London:+Verso,+2009),+49,+cited+in+Adlington,+p.+230.>Google Scholar

105 Anderson, A Zone of Engagement, 31–3, 44–5. Anderson – who believes most movements conventionally categorized as modernist are outgrowths of a handful of antithetical movements such as symbolism, expressionism, cubism, futurism, constructivism and surrealism – also observes sharply that in what had been the leading capitalist country through the nineteenth-century, England, there followed little of a homegrown modernist movement (as opposed to the work of modernists such as Eliot, Pound or Joyce who came from abroad), unlike in France, Germany, Italy, Russia or the United States – which frustrates Berman's attempts to present modernism as an outgrowth of modernity.Google Scholar