An extensive review of cephalopod fauna in the Central and North Atlantic coast of Africa was performed based on material collected during 10 research cruises in these waters. In the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) area, a total of 378,377 cephalopod specimens was collected from 1247 bottom trawl stations. Of those specimens, 300 were sampled for subsequent identification in the laboratory and found to belong to 65 different species and 23 families. After an exhaustive review of the existing literature on the cephalopods and new data obtained from the surveys, an updated checklist of 138 species was generated for the CCLME area. Our knowledge of the known geographic distribution ranges of several species has been expanded: Muusoctopus januarii has been sighted from Guinea–Bissau waters, passing through Western Sahara, to Morocco waters for the first time; Lepidoteuthis grimaldii and Octopus salutii have been sighted off Morocco waters for the first time; Austrorossia mastigophora, Abralia (Heterabralia) siedleckyi, Abralia (Pygmabralia) redfieldi and Sepiola atlantica have been cited off Western Sahara waters for the first time; Magnoteuthis magna, Abralia (Asteroteuthis) veranyi and Octopoteuthis megaptera have been sighted off Moroccan and Western Sahara waters for the first time; Ancistroteuthis lichtensteinii, Opisthoteuthis grimaldii, Onykia robsoni, Muusoctopus levis and Bathypolypus valdiviae have been cited in the Guinea–Bissau coast for the first time; the northern geographic limit of Bathypolypus ergasticus has been expanded to Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania and southward to Guinea–Bissau waters. The presence of Muusoctopus johnsonianus in Senegalese waters has been reported for the first time. A Chtenopteryx sicula specimen was reported in Western Sahara waters. A specimen belonging to the poorly known Cirrothauma murrayi species was found in South Moroccan waters. Amphitretus pelagicus, a probably cosmopolitan species, has been reported in the Western Sahara and Guinea–Bissau waters. Some species that were previously recorded in the area, Sepia angulata, Sepia hieronis, Heteroteuthis dagamensis, Helicocranchia joubini and Tremoctopus gelatus, were removed from the final checklist and considered to be not present in the CCLME area. Cycloteuthis akimushkini was substituted with Cycloteuthis sirventi, its senior synonym, in the final checklist. Similarly, Mastigoteuthis flammea and Mastigoteuthis grimaldii were substituted with Mastigoteuthis agassizii.