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Statoliths of one Fossil and Four Living Squids (Gonatidae: Cephalopoda)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2009

Malcolm R. Clarke
Affiliation:
The Laboratory, Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth
J. E. Fitch
Affiliation:
Department of Fish and Game, Long Beach, California, U.S.A.
T. Kristensen
Affiliation:
Zoological Museum, Universitetsparken, Copenhagen
T. Kubodera§
Affiliation:
Research Institute of North Pacific Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan.
Linda Maddock
Affiliation:
The Laboratory, Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth

Extract

Cephalopod statoliths are paired calcareous stones which lie in cavities, the statocysts, within the skull. They have a form which, though variable, shows promise as a source of criteria for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. As a preliminary to more detailed studies, Clarke (1978) published a description of the form of a generalized teuthoid statolith, coined nomenclature for the various parts and gave a very brief survey of variation of statoliths within the living Cephalopoda. This nomenclature was used in a detailed description of fossilized teuthoid statoliths by Clarke & Fitch (1979). Here, descriptions of the statoliths of the living species Berryteuthis magister (Berry, 1913), Gonatopsis borealis Sasaki, 1923, Gonatopsis (Boreoteuthis) makko Okutani & Nemoto, 1964 and Gonatus fabricii (Lichtenstein, 1818) are given and the fossil Berryteuthis species described in outline by Clarke & Fitch (1979) is compared with B. magister. A statistical analysis of measurements of the statoliths of these five species has been made and the results are presented. This forms the first part of a general description of teuthoid statoliths and similar studies on the Ommastrephidae and the Loliginidae are in preparation.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 1980

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References

Blackith, R. E. & Rayment, R. A., 1971. Multivariate Morphomeirics. 412 pp. London, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
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Fitch, J. E., 1969. Fossil records of certain schooling fishes of the California current system. Report. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations, 13, 7180.Google Scholar
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