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Strength-based parenting and adolescents’ psychological outcomes: The role of mental toughness

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 April 2019

Ali Serdar Sağkal*
Faculty of Education, Department of Counseling and Guidance, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey
Yalçın Özdemir
Faculty of Education, Department of Counseling and Guidance, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey
*Corresponding author. Email:


The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (via mental toughness) of strength-based parenting on adolescents’ psychological distress and subjective happiness. Participants included 370 adolescents (M = 15.86 years, SD = 0.50, range = 14–18 years, 51.6% girls) attending public high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included measures of strength-based parenting, mental toughness, psychological distress, and subjective happiness. Findings provided evidence of both direct as well as indirect effects (via mental toughness) of strength-based parenting on adolescents’ psychological outcomes. Specifically, results showed that strength-based parenting was negatively and directly related to psychological distress, and positively and directly related to subjective happiness. In addition, strength-based parenting was indirectly related to psychological distress and subjective happiness through mental toughness. The findings highlight the importance of strength-based parenting and mental toughness on psychological outcomes in adolescents.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Cambridge University Press 

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