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The Republican Paradox: Liberty, Prosperity, Virtue, and Vice in the American Founding

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 March 2017

Jonathan Barth*
Affiliation:
Arizona State University

Abstract

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Copyright © Donald Critchlow and Cambridge University Press 2017 

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References

NOTES

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4. James Burgh, Political Disquisitions, or, An Enquiry Into Public Errors, Defects, and Abuses, vol. 3 (London, 1775), 22, 30.

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12. Hume, Essays, 285; Ferguson, History of Civil Society, 440–41; Henry Home, Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man (1774; Dublin, 1779), 1:363.

13. Sir Dudley North, Discourses Upon Trade (London, 1691), 14; Bernard Mandeville, “The Grumbling Hive, or, Knaves Turn’d Honest” (1705), in Bernard Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, or, Private Vices, Public Benefits (1714; London, 1806), 1–11; John Brown], An Explanatory Defence of the Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times (London, 1758), 8; [John Brown], An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times, 5th ed. (London, 1757), 153, 162. See also Berry, Christopher J., The Idea of Luxury: A Conceptual and Historical Investigation (Cambridge, 1994), 34Google Scholar, 45–176; Berry, Idea of Commercial Society, 158–67; Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Eger, “The Rise and Fall of the Luxury Debates,” in Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Eger, eds., Luxury in the Eighteenth Century: Debates, Desires, and Delectable Goods (Hampshire, UK, 2003), 7–27; Pincus, “Neither Machiavellian Moment Nor Possessive Individualism,” 707–12, 717–24, 732–34; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 22–27.

14. Hume, Essays, 286. For more on Hume’s position on luxury, see Berry, Idea of Luxury, 142–52; Berry, Idea of Commercial Society, 160–64; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 27–29.

15. Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1:316; Hume, Essays, 285–86; Adam Ferguson, Principles of Moral and Political Science, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1792), 2:425; Adam Smith, Lectures on Justice, Police, Revenue and Arms (1763; Oxford, 1896), 253; Burgh, Political Disquisitions, 64–65. For more on early modern thought connecting commercial activity with virtue, see Berry, Idea of Commercial Society, 51–58, 66, 78–85, 90–91, 100–109, 128–43; Nicholas Phillipson, “Adam Smith as Civic Moralist,” in Hont and Ignatieff, eds., Wealth and Virtue, 181–202; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 35–40.

16. Hume, Essays, 285–86, 293, 296; Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments, 94, 98; Kames, Sketches, 1:237, 371; Ferguson, History of Civil Society, 441; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences,” 1750, repr. in The Social Contract & Discourses, trans. G. D. H. Cole (London, 1920), 144.

17. Benjamin Franklin to Benjamin Vaughan, 26 July 1784, in The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert Henry Smyth, 10 vols. (New York, 1905–7), 9:243; Benjamin Franklin to Richard Jackson, 8 March 1763, in Letters and Papers of Ben Franklin and Richard Jackson, 1753–1785, ed. Carl Van Doren (Philadelphia, 1947), 92; John Witherspoon, Essay on Money, as a Medium of Commerce (Philadelphia, 1786), 28; Price, Richard, Observations on the Importance of the American Revolution, and the Means of Making it a Benefit to the World (Dublin, 1785), 77.Google Scholar

18. Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, Letters on the Study and Use of History, rev. ed. (1752; London, 1779), 14; Marchamont Nedham, The Case of the Common-Wealth of England Stated (London, 1650), 81–82; Algernon Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government (1683; London, 1698), 202; [John Trenchard], An Argument Shewing that a Standing Army is Inconsistent with a Free Government (London, 1697), 2; Brown, Explanatory Defence, 4.

For more on the connection between virtue and liberty in early modern thought, see Pocock, Virtue, Commerce, and History, 48; Pocock, J. G. A., Politics, Language and Time (New York, 1971), 8485Google Scholar; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, viii–ix 108–9; Wood, Creation of the American Republic, 46–52, 65–69, 91–124; Wood, Radicalism of the American Revolution, 104–5, 356–67; Robertson, “Scottish Enlightenment,” 138; Pincus, “Neither Machiavellian Moment Nor Possessive Individualism,” 707, 712; Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 65–67; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 6–7, 67–69.

19. [James Burgh], Britain’s Remembrancer (1746; London, 1747), 8–9, 11–14.

20. Ibid., 8, 14–17; Brown, Estimate of the Manners, 170; Kames, Sketches, 1:236; Richard Price, Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, the Principles of Government, and the Justice and Policy of the War with America (London, 1776), 98; Hume, Essays, 49; Burgh, Political Disquisitions, 66.

21. George Mason to the Committee of Merchants in London, 6 June 1766, in Kate Mason Rowland, ed., The Life of George Mason, 1725–1792, 2 vols. (New York, 1892), 1:384; Benjamin Franklin to Joseph Galloway, 25 February 1775, in Writings of Franklin, 6:311–12; Burgh, Political Disquisitions, 30–31; Edmund Burke, “Speech on Moving Resolutions for Conciliation with the Colonies,” 22 March 1775, in The Works of Edmund Burke, 9 vols. (Boston, 1839), 2:32. See also Bailyn, Bernard, The Origins of American Politics (New York, 1968), 20, 150–52Google Scholar; Bailyn, Ideological Origins, 79–93; Wood, Creation of the American Republic, 10–17, 30–36; H. Trevor Colbourn, The Lamp of Experience: Whig History and the Intellectual Origins of the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, 1965), vii–viii, 47–50, 186; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 48–51.

22. Thomas Jefferson to Albert Gallatin, 11 October 1809, in The Works of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul Leicester Ford, 12 vols. (New York, 1904–5), 11:125; Samuel Adams to Benjamin Kent, 27 July 1776, in The Writings of Samuel Adams, ed. Harry Alonzo Cushing, 4 vols. (New York, 1904–8), 3:305; John Adams to Mercy Otis Warren, 8 January 1776, in Papers of John Adams, ed. Robert Joseph Taylor and Gregg L. Lint, 11 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 3:398; Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, 275; Virginia Ratifying Convention, 20 June 1788, in The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson et al., vol. 11 (Charlottesville, 1977), 11:163.

23. Milton, John, The Second Defence of the People of England (London, 1654)Google Scholar, in The Prose Works of John Milton, ed. Rufus Wilmot Griswold, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1847), 2:524; John Milton, The History of Britain, that Part Especially now call’d England (London, 1670), in Prose Works of John Milton, 2:245; Trenchard and Gordon, Cato’s Letters, 1:183; Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1:26; [Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke], A Dissertation Upon Parties, 8th ed. (1733; London, 1754), 180–81.

24. Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 201; Milton, Second Defence, 2:526; Kames, Sketches, 1:478–79; Burgh, Political Disquisitions, 2, 9; Oliver Goldsmith, The Roman History, from the Foundation of the City of Rome to the Destruction of the Western Empire (1769; London, 1770), 2:29; Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1:96; Rousseau, “Arts and Sciences,” 131.

25. Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 241–42; Kames, Sketches, 1:467–68; Benjamin Franklin to Messrs. The Abbes Chalut and Arnaud, 17 April 1787, in Writings of Franklin, 9:569; Rousseau, “Arts and Sciences,” 143.

26. Mandeville, “Grumbling Hive,” 6, 11; Mandeville, Fable, vi; Hume, Essays, 294.

27. Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), 15 June 1775, cited in Wood, Creation of the American Republic, 35.

28. John Adams, A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, 3 vols. (London, 1787–88), 3:337; John Adams to Mercy Otis Warren, 16 April 1776, in Papers of John Adams, 4:124–25; second to last quotation in McCoy, Elusive Republic, 172; Samuel Adams to John Langdon, 7 August 1777, in The Writings of Samuel Adams, ed. Henry Alonzo Cushing, 4 vols. (New York, 1968), 3:402–3, cited in Wood, Creation of the American Republic, 124.

29. James Harrington, The Common-Wealth of Oceana (London, 1656), B1–2. For more on Harrington and like-minded republicans in seventeenth-century England, see Pincus, “Neither Machiavellian Moment Nor Possessive Individualism,” 707, 711–17, 724–28; Pocock, Politics, Language, and Time, 90–95, 104, 108–15; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 383–400.

30. Trenchard and Gordon, Cato’s Letters, 2:35; [Francis Atterbury], English Advice, to the Freeholders of England (London, 1714), 3. For more on Harrington’s influence on eighteenth-century thought, see Pocock, Politics, Language, and Time, 104, 107–8, 127, 131–38; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 426, 506–7, 514–15.

31. Beckett, J. V., “The Pattern of Landownership in England and Wales, 1660–1880,” Economic History Review, New Series 37, no. 1 (February 1984): 5, 1618Google Scholar; F. M. L. Thompson, “The Social Distribution of Landed Property in England Since the Sixteenth Century,” Economic History Review, New Series 19, no. 3 (1966): 514; Geoffrey Holmes, The Making of a Great Power: Late Stuart and Early Georgian Britain (London, 1993), 80; Geoffrey Holmes and Daniel Szechi, The Age of Oligarchy: Pre-Industrial Britain, 1722–1783 (London, 1993), 136–40; H. J. Habakkuk, “English Landownership, 1680–1740,” Economic History Review 10, no. 1 (February 1940): 13–14.

32. Thompson, “Social Distribution,” 506–7, 514–15; Holmes, Making of a Great Power, 70–27, 281; Habakkuk, “English Landownership,” 2–5, 11.

33. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776; repr., New York, 1937), bk. 1, chap. X; Smith, Lectures on Justice, 255–56, 259.

34. Hoppit, Julian, “Attitudes to Credit in Britain, 1680–1790,” Historical Journal 33, no. 2 (June 1990): 307–10Google Scholar; Macleod, Christine, “The 1690s Patents Boom: Invention or Stock-Jobbing?” Economic History Review, New Series 39, no. 4 (November 1986): 549–71Google Scholar; Giles Parkinson, “War, Peace, and the Rise of the London Stock Market,” in Sophus Reinert and Pernille Røge, eds., The Political Economy of Empire in the Early Modern World (Hampshire, UK, 2013), 131–46; Jones, J. R., Country and Court: England, 1658–1714 (Cambridge, Mass., 1978), 7176Google Scholar; Holmes, Geoffrey, British Politics in the Age of Anne (London, 1967), 155–57Google Scholar; Harris, Tim, Politics Under the Later Stuarts: Party Conflict in a Divided Society, 1660–1715 (London, 1993), 197.Google Scholar

35. [Francis Atterbury], The Second and Last English Advice, to the Freeholders of England (London, 1722), 37.

36. For more on eighteenth-century bankruptcy and financial crises, see Julian Hoppit, “Financial Crises in Eighteenth-Century England,” Economic History Review, New Series 39, no. 1 (February 1986): 39–58; Julian Hoppit, Risk and Failure in English Business, 1700–1800 (Cambridge, 1987).

37. Gordon and Trenchard, Cato’s Letters, 1:11, 17, 20; The Examiner 14 (2 November 1710), cited in Parkinson, “London Stock Market,” 136; Bolingbroke quotation cited in Speck, Stability and Strife, 155; Ferguson, Moral and Political Science, 2:451; James Boswell, Reflections on the Late Alarming Bankruptcies in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1772), 18; Kames, Sketches, 1:284; [Charles Davenant], Essays Upon the Ballance of Power (London, 1701), 51.

38. The Craftsmen, nos. 331 and 332 (1732), cited in Speck, Stability and Strife, 158; [Alexander Montgomerie], An Inquiry into the Original and Consequences of the Public Debt (Edinburgh, 1753; repr., London, 1754), 3, 21. For more on eighteenth-century British opposition to the Financial Revolution, see Dickson, P. G. M., The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit, 1688–1756 (London, 1967; repr., Aldershot, UK, 1993), 1733Google Scholar; Hoppit, “Attitudes to Credit,” 307–15; W. A. Speck, Stability and Strife: England, 1714–1760 (Cambridge, Mass., 1977), 156–57, 225; Berry, Idea of Commercial Society, 180–86; Holmes, Age of Anne, 159, 167–70; Holmes, Making of a Great Power, 273, 289–90; H. T. Dickinson, Liberty and Property: Political Ideology in Eighteenth-Century Britain (New York, 1977), 51, 106–7, 170–72; Jones, Country and Court, 79, 85–87, 90–91; Pocock, Politics, Language, and Time, 93–97; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 426, 441, 456, 477–78.

39. Some Observations by Way of Answer to a Pamphlet called England’s Glory, or, The Royal Bank (London, 1694), 2; John Briscoe, A Discourse on the Late Funds of the Million-Act, Lottery-Act, and Bank of England (London, 1694), 18–19; Sir Francis Brewster, Essays on Trade and Navigation (London, 1695), 6.

40. For more on the link between Whigs and the Bank of England, including instances of political corruption, see Linda Colley, In Defiance of Oligarchy: The Tory Party, 1714–60 (Cambridge, 1982), 15; Holmes, Age of Anne, 164, 172–74; Holmes, Making of a Great Power, 289–90; Harris, Politics Under the Late Stuarts, 198.

41. Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Some Reflections on the Present State of the Nation (London, 1753), in The Works of the Late Right Honorable Henry St John, Lord Viscount Bolingbroke, ed. Dr. Goldsmith, 8 vols. (London, 1809), 4:381–82; Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, to Sir William Windham, 1717, in Works of Bolingbroke, 1:13; Bolingbroke, Present State of the Nation, 4:359; Alexander Pope, “Epistle to Bathurst” (1733), cited in Dickinson, Liberty and Property, 172; Speck, Stability and Strife, 225; [Benjamin Bragg], A Short View of the Apparent Dangers and Mischiefs from the Bank of England (London, 1707), 14; John Broughton, Remarks Upon the Bank of England, with Regard more Especially to our Trade and Government (London, 1707), 1–2.

42. Bolingbroke, Dissertation, 266, 300; Bolingbroke, Study and Use of History, 39; Bolingbroke, Present State of the Nation, 4:359; Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, to Sir William Windham, 1717, in Works of Bolingbroke, 1:13. For more on Bolingbroke, see Speck, Stability and Strife, 221–23; Holmes, Age of Anne, 176–77.

43. For more on British nationalism in the eighteenth century, see Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837, 2nd ed. (1992; New Haven, 2008); David Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000). For more on defenses of the ruling British Court establishment, see Plumb, J. H., The Growth of Political Stability in England, 1675–1725 (1967; repr., London, 1979)Google Scholar; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 459–60, 487, 525; Dickinson, Liberty and Property, 95, 100, 125–40, 154–62; Speck, Stability and Strife, 22–23, 164, 228–29; Jones, Country and Court, 42; Holmes and Szechi, Age of Oligarchy, 28.

44. Hume, Essays, 294; [Robert Wallace], Characteristics of the Present Political State of Great Britain, 2nd ed. (London, 1758), 6, 95.

45. Atterbury, Second and Last English Advice, 9; Bolingbroke, Dissertation, 298. For more on the Age of Walpole, see Speck, Stability and Strife, 24, 159, 198–205, 210–12, 217–20, 228–38; Holmes, Age of Oligarchy, 13–15, 23–28. For more on Country opposition to the establishment Court interest, see Dickinson, Liberty and Property, 91–92, 102–15, 124, 170–75, 181–84; Speck, Stability and Strife, 5–6, 22, 205, 217, 222–26; Colley, Defiance of Oligarchy, 90–93, 153–54, 173; Plumb, Growth of Political Stability, 47–48, 138–43, 177–51; Holmes, Age of Anne, 119–47; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 407–9, 486; Bailyn, Origins of American Politics, 38–55; Dennis Rubini, Court and Country, 1688–1702 (London, 1967), 36–38, 100–103; Caroline Robbins, The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman (Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

46. Montgomerie, Consequences of the Public Debt, 4–5; Montesquieu, Spirit of Laws, 1:394; Sir James Steuart, An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, 2 vols. (London, 1767), 2:443.

47. Cawthorne, Plan to Reconcile, 10; Alexander Hamilton to Robert Morris, 30 April 1781, in The Works of Alexander Hamilton, ed. Henry Cabot Lodge, 12 vols. (New York, 1904), 3:362; Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures: Communication to the House of Representatives (1791); Robert Morris to John Hanson, 29 July 1782, in The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781–1784, ed. E. James Ferguson and John Catanzariti, 9 vols. (Pittsburgh, 1973–99), 6:59. See also E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of American Public Finance, 1776–1790 (Chapel Hill, 1961), 114–24; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 96, 110, 114–19, 132–34, 149, 165.

48. Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, 20 December 1787, in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Digital Edition, ed. Barbara B. Oberg and J. Jefferson Looney (Charlottesville, 2008–15); Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, 274–75, 290; Price, Observations, 77–78.

49. McCoy, Elusive Republic, 63–64, 121, 129, 227–31, 248; Wood, Radicalism of the American Revolution, 314.

50. Thomas Jefferson to Governor James Jay, 7 April 1809, in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. H. A. Washington, 9 vols. (Washington, D.C., 1853–54), 12:271.

51. For more on the republican vision for an agricultural America, see McCoy, Elusive Republic, 13–14, 19–20, 40, 66–68, 78–80, 84, 121, 189, 237; Charles Sellers, The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815–1846 (New York, 1991), 35–39; Colbourn, Lamp of Experience, 158–84; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 506–7, 514–15, 534–39; Daniel Vickers, “Competency and Competition: Economic Culture in Early America,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 47, no. 1 (January 1990): 3–29.

52. Montgomerie, Consequences of the Public Debt, 30; Smith, Lectures on Justice, 191; Wallace, Present Political State, 15. For more on eighteenth-century British support for the Financial Revolution, see Hoppit, “Attitudes to Credit,” 314–19; Berry, Idea of a Commercial Society, 99–100; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 456–60; Dickinson, Liberty and Property, 85–86, 150–51.

53. Hume, Essays, 301; James Sullivan, The Path to Riches: An Inquiry into the Origin and Use of Money; and into the Principles of Stocks & Banks (1792; repr., Boston, 1809), 10; James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, 10 July 1791, in The Writings of James Madison, ed. Gaillard Hunt, vol. 6 (New York, 1906), 55; The Mail (Philadelphia), 29 May 1792; The Pennsylvania Mercury and Universal Advertiser (Philadelphia), 21 July 1786.

54. Noah Webster, “Remarks on the Manners, Government, and Debt of the United States,” 1787, in Noah Webster, A Collection of Essays and Fugitiv Writings on Moral, Historical, Political and Literary Subjects (Boston, 1790), 106–7, 160; Webster, “Principles of Government and Commerce,” 1788, in Webster, Collection of Essays, 42; Sullivan, Path to Riches, preface, 24, 31–32, 43. For more on early national anxiety over the influence of speculative finance in America, see McCoy, Elusive Republic, 153–54, 166–67, 172, 183, 186; Pocock, Machiavellian Moment, 528–31.

55. Speech of Congressman James Jackson (Ga.), repr. in The General Advertiser and Political, Commercial, Agricultural and Literary Journal (Philadelphia), 5 February 1791; Speech of Congressman William Findley (Pa.), repr. in The Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia), 23 November 1791; The Federal Gazette and Philadelphia Evening Post, 1 April 1791.

56. National Gazette (Philadelphia), 24 May 1792; Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia), 11 September 1792; The Daily Advertiser (New York), 3 April 1792; Federal Gazette & Philadelphia Evening Post, 21 August 1792; Massachusetts Spy, 8 March 1792; National Gazette (Philadelphia), 17 and 31 May 1792.

57. Thomas Jefferson to Van Staphorst & Hubbard, 27 March 1797, in Papers of Jefferson Digital Edition; Thomas Jefferson, “The Anas,” in Works of Jefferson, 1:196; Thomas Jefferson to Albert Gallatin, 13 December 1803, in Writings of Jefferson, 4:519–20; Thomas Jefferson to William B. Giles, 26 December 1825, in Writings of Jefferson, 7:106; Thomas Jefferson to John W. Eppes, 6 November 1813, in Writings of Jefferson, 6:246.

58. Circular Letter of Congressman Thomas Harris (TN) to Constituents, 15 Apr. 1814, in Circular Letters, 2:884–5; House Debate on the National Banking Bill, 29 Feb. 1816, in Legislative and Documentary History of the Bank of the United States: Including the Original Bank of North America, ed. M. St. Clair Clarke and D. A. Hall (Washington, D.C., 1832), 658; The Aurora (Philadelphia), 7 February 1810; Cobbett’s Political Register, 13 January 1816; Niles Weekly Register (Philadelphia), 28 February 1818; The Aurora (Philadelphia), 5 March 1816 and 31 July 1817.

59. John Adams to F. A. Vanderkemp, 16 February 1809, in The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 10 vols. (Boston, 1850–56), 9:610; Benjamin Rush to Thomas Jefferson, 1 February 1811, in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series, ed. J. Jefferson Looney, 10 vols. (Princeton, 2004–13), 3:357; John Adams to Benjamin Rush, 28 August 1811, in Works of Adams, 9:638; John Adams to John Taylor, of Caroline, 12 March 1819, in Works of Adams, 10:375.

60. Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor, 28 May 1816, in Writings of Jefferson, 6:605, 608.

61. The Aurora (Philadelphia), 15 February 1814.

62. Timberlake, Richard, Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History (Chicago, 1978)Google Scholar, 16; Howard Bodenhorn, A History of Banking in Antebellum America: Financial Markets and Economic Development in an Era of Nation-Building (Cambridge, 2000), 7–9.

63. Wood, Radicalism of the American Revolution, 321.

64. Ibid., 229–30, 307–39, 358–59; McCoy, Elusive Republic, 238; Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (Cambridge, Mass., 2000), 88–89.

65. The Aurora (Philadelphia), 30 April 1816.

66. Committee of the New York legislature, 1818, cited in William Gouge, A Short History of Paper Money and Banking in the United States (Philadelphia, 1833), 5.

67. Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (Princeton, 1957), 328–68; Arthur Schlesinger, The Age of Jackson (Boston, 1945), 74–127.

68. Evening Post (New York), 30 January 1835; The American Beacon and Commercial Diary (Norfolk), 9 January 1816; [Benjamin Franklin Butler], Remarks on Private Banking (Albany, 1818), 15–16; Philadelphia Workingmen’s Committee, 25 March 1829, repr. in The Free Trade Advocate, and Journal of Political Economy (Philadelphia), 16 May 1829.

69. Philadelphia Workingmen’s Committee, 25 March 1829, repr. in The Free Trade Advocate, and Journal of Political Economy (Philadelphia), 16 May 1829; Workingman’s Advocate (New York), 18 December 1830; Hildreth, History of Banks, 131; Plaindealer (New York), 20 May 1837.

70. Evening Post (New York), 30 January 1835.