Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-569ts Total loading time: 0.446 Render date: 2022-10-01T06:23:21.718Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

X-ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2015

Daniel C. Fisher
Affiliation:
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA, ;
Ethan A. Shirley
Affiliation:
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA, ;
Christopher D. Whalen
Affiliation:
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA, ;
Zachary T. Calamari
Affiliation:
Richard Gilder Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA,
Adam N. Rountrey
Affiliation:
Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 1109 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA, ;
Alexei N. Tikhonov
Affiliation:
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab.1, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russia,
Bernard Buigues
Affiliation:
International Mammoth Committee, Place Louis XIV, St. Jean de Luz, 64500, France,
Frédéric Lacombat
Affiliation:
Musée de Paléontologie de Chilhac, place de l'Église, Chilhac, 43380, France,
Semyon Grigoriev
Affiliation:
Museum of Mammoth, Institute of Applied Ecology of the North, North-Eastern Federal University, 48 Kulakovskogo St., Yakutsk, 677000, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia,
Piotr A. Lazarev
Affiliation:
Museum of Mammoth, Institute of Applied Ecology of the North, North-Eastern Federal University, 48 Kulakovskogo St., Yakutsk, 677000, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia,

Abstract

Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after death, leaving her tissues in excellent condition, whereas Lyuba's body underwent postmortem changes that resulted in authigenic formation of nodules of the mineral vivianite associated with her cranium and within diaphyses of long bones. CT data provide the only comprehensive approach to mapping vivianite distribution. Three-dimensional modeling and measurement of segmented long bones permits comparison between these individuals and with previously recovered specimens. CT scans of long bones and foot bones show developmental features such as density gradients that reveal ossification centers. The braincase of Khroma was segmented to show the approximate morphology of the brain; its volume is slightly less (∼2,300 cm3) than that of neonate elephants (∼2,500 cm3). Lyuba's premaxillae are more gracile than those of Khroma, possibly a result of temporal and/or geographic variation but probably also reflective of their age difference. Segmentation of CT data and 3-D modeling software were used to produce models of teeth that were too complex for traditional molding and casting techniques.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Barnes, I., Shapiro, B., Lister, A., Kuznetsova, T., Sher, A., Guthrie, D., and Thomas, M. G. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Current Biology, 17:1,0721,075.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumenbach, J. F. 1799. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (sixth edition). Dieterich, Göttingen.Google Scholar
Boeskorov, G., Tikhonov, A. N., and Lazarev, P. A. 2007. A new find of a mammoth calf. Doklady Biological Sciences, 417:480483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Debruyne, R., Chu, G., King, C. E., Bos, K., Kuch, M., Schwarz, C., Szpak, P., Gröcke, D. R., Matheus, P., Zazula, G., Guthrie, D., Froese, D., Buigues, B., De Marliave, C., Flemming, C., Poinar, D., Fisher, D., Southon, J., Tikhonov, A. N., Macphee, R. D. E., and Poinar, H. N. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a New World origin of late Quaternary woolly mammoths. Current Biology, 18:17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Enk, J., Devault, A., Debruyne, R., King, C. E., Treangen, T., O'Rourke, D., Salzberg, S. L., Fisher, D., MacPhee, R., and Poinar, H. 2011. Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths. Genome Biology 2011, 12:R51.Google ScholarPubMed
Falconer, H. 1857. On the species of mastodon and elephant occurring in the fossil state in Great Britain. Part 1. Mastodon. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 13:307360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D. C. 1996. Extinction of proboscideans in North America, p. 296315. InShoshani, J. and Tassy, P.(eds.), The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and their Relatives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Fisher, D. C. 2009. Paleobiology and extinction of proboscideans in the Great Lakes region of North America, p. 5575. InHaynes, G.(ed.), American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene. Springer Science+Business Media, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, D. C., Tikhonov, A. N., Kosintsev, P. A., Rountrey, A. N., Buigues, B., and Plicht, J. v. d. 2012. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia. Quaternary International, 255:94105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gooden, B. A. 1994. Mechanism of the human diving response. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 29:616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guthrie, R. D. 1990. Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: The Story of Blue Babe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 323p.Google Scholar
Hanlon, S., Nagel, G., Boyd, R., Lewshenia, R., Forsberg, M., and Gheung, S. 1971. The dissociation of bovine hemoglobin at acid pH. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 229:359367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hounsfield, G. N. 1980. Computed medical imaging (Nobel lecture, 8 December 1979). Journal of Radiology, 61:459468.Google Scholar
Johansen, K. 1964. Regional distribution of circulating blood during submersion asphyxia in the duck. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 62 (1–2):19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosintsev, P. A., Lapteva, E. G., Trofimova, S. S., Zanina, O. G., Tikhonov, A. N., and Plicht, J. v. d. 2010 . The intestinal contents of a baby woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799) from the Yuribey River (Yamal Peninsula). Doklady Akademii Nauk, 432:556558.Google Scholar
Kosintsev, P. A., Lapteva, E. G., Trofimova, S. S., Zanina, O. G., Tikhonov, A. N., and Plicht, J. v. d. 2012. Environmental reconstruction inferred from the intestinal contents of the Yamal baby mammoth Lyuba (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799). Quaternary International, 255:231238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazarev, P., Grigoriev, S., and Plotnikov, V. 2010. Mammoth calves from the permafrost of Yakutia. Quaternaire, Hors-Série, 3:5657.Google Scholar
Lillie, R. D. 1939. Experiments on the solubility of hemosiderin in acids and other reagents during and after various fixations. The American Journal of Pathology, 15:225239.Google ScholarPubMed
Lister, A. M. and Sher, A. V. 2001. The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science, 294:1,0941,097.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lister, A. M., Sher, A. V., van Essen, H., and Wei, G. 2005. The pattern and process of mammoth evolution in Eurasia. Quaternary International, 126–128:4964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lister, A. and Bahn, P. 2007. Mammoths: Giants of the Ice Age (revised edition). University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 192p.Google Scholar
Manning, P. G., Murphy, T. P., and Prepas, E. E. 1991. Intensive formation of vivianite in the bottom sediments of mesotrophic Narrow Lake, Alberta. Canadian Mineralogist, 29:7785.Google Scholar
Maschenko, E. 2002. Individual development, biology and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Cranium, 19:1120.Google Scholar
Maschenko, E., Tikhonov, A. N., MacPhee, R. D. E. 2005. Mammoth calf from Bolshoi Lyakhovskii Island (New Siberian Islands, Arctic Siberia). Russian Journal of Theriology, 4:7988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGowan, G. and Prangnell, J. 2006. The significance of vivianite in archaeological settings. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, 21:93111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metcalfe, J. Z., Longstaffe, F. J., and Zazula, G. D. 2010. Nursing, weaning, and tooth development in woolly mammoths from Old Crow, Yukon, Canada: implications for Pleistocene extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298:257270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesti, F. 1825. Sulla nuova specie di elefante fossile del Valdarno all'Illustrissimo sig. Dott. Prof. Ottaviano Targioni Tozzetti. (Lettere sopra alcune ossa fossili del Valdarno non per anco descritte.) Nuovo Giornale de' Letterati, 11 (24):195216.Google Scholar
Pabst, M. and Hofer, F. 1998. Deposits of different origin in the lungs of the 5,300-yr-old Tyrolean iceman. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107:112.3.0.CO;2-R>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piney, A. 1922. The anatomy of the bone marrow: with special reference to the distribution of the red marrow. The British Medical Journal, 2:792795.Google Scholar
Pohlig, H. 1885. Über ein Hipparionen-fauna von Maragha in Nord-Persien, über fossile Elefantenreste Kaukasiens und Persiens, und über die Resultate einer Monographie der fossilen Elefanten Deutschlands und Italiens. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 37:1,0221,027.Google Scholar
Ramsay, E. C. and Henry, R. W. 2001. Anatomy of the elephant foot, p. 912. InCsuti, B., Sargent, E. L., and Bechert, U. S.(eds.), The Elephant's Foot. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
Rountrey, A. N. 2009. Life histories of juvenile woolly mammoths: stable isotope and elemental analyses of tooth dentin. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 331p.Google Scholar
Rountrey, A. N., Fisher, D. C., Vartanyan, S., and Fox, D. L. 2007. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of a juvenile woolly mammoth tusk: evidence of weaning. Quaternary International, 169–170:166173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rountrey, A. N., Fisher, D. C., Tikhonov, A. N., Kosintsev, P. A., Lazarev, P. A., Boeskorov, G., and Buigues, B. 2012. Early tooth development, gestation, and season of birth in mammoths. Quaternary International, 255:196205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sacher, G. A. and Staffeldt, E. F. 1974. Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. The American Naturalist, 108:593615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shoshani, J., Kupsky, W. J., Marchant, G. H. 2006. Elephant brain Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution. Brain Research Bulletin, 70:124157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tolmachoff, I. P. 1929. The carcasses of the mammoth and rhinoceros found in the frozen ground of Siberia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 23:ix, 11–74b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Geel, B., Fisher, D. C., Rountrey, A. N., van Arkel, J., Duivenvoorden, J. F., Nieman, A. M., van Reenen, G. B. A., Tikhonov, A. N., Buigues, B., and Gravendeel, B. 2011. Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia). Quaternary Science Reviews, 30:3,9353,946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vartanyan, S., Garutt, V., Sher, A. 1993. Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic. Nature, 362:337340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vartanyan, S., Arslanov, Kh., Karhu, J., Possnert, G., Sulerzhitsky, L. 2008. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Quaternary Research, 70:5159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Warwick, R. and Williams, P. L. 1973. Gray's Anatomy (35th British edition). W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1471p.Google Scholar
Weissengruber, G. E., Egger, G. F., Hutchinson, J. R., Groenewald, H. B., Elsässer, L., Famini, D., and Forstenpointner, G. 2006. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants. Journal of Anatomy, 209:781792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

X-ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

X-ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

X-ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *