Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-4whtl Total loading time: 0.187 Render date: 2021-05-14T18:10:07.666Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

The order Fenestrata (Bryozoa) of the Toroweap Formation (Permian), southern Nevada

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2015

Miriam E. Mccolloch
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney 99004
Ernest H. Gilmour
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Eastern Washington University, Cheney 99004
Edward M. Snyder
Affiliation:
Division of Science and Mathematics, Shepherd College, Shepherdstown, West Virginia 25443

Abstract

Recently developed analytical procedures for meshwork fenestrate and pinnate bryozoans made it possible to recognize two Russian species in the Toroweap Formation of southern Nevada. This analysis separates zoarial and zooecial features and emphasizes the three-dimensional form and size of the zooecial chamber as well as accessory features. In this investigation, these analytical procedures are successful even when specimens are fragmented and embedded in a hard rock matrix.

The bryozoans in the Toroweap Formation in this study were found to be more similar to Permian species of the Russian platform than to species described in earlier North American Permian studies. Five species of fenestrate bryozoans are present in the Toroweap Formation. Wjatkella permiana Morozova, 1970, and Polypora sargaensis Trizna, 1948, originally described in Russia, are recognized in the Toroweap. Three new species, Penniretepora oppositus n. sp., Septopora bilateralis n. sp., and Reteporidra anaphora n. sp., are present and, along with the Russian species, are described in this paper.

The local range zones of the five species of fenestrates were identified in three measured sections. Penniretepora oppositus and Septopora bilateralis are present throughout the three sections; Reteporidra anaphora is present in the lower two-thirds of the three sections; Wjatkella permiana is present in the middle parts of the three sections; and Polypora sargaensis is present in the upper parts of the three sections. Concurrent range zones, based on ramose bryozoans, were previously identified in two of the three sections and, using the distribution of the fenestrates in these two sections, four of the five concurrent range zones were recognized in the third section.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Baars, D. L. 1979. The Permian System, p. 16. In Baars, D. L. (ed.), Permianland—Four Corners Geological Society Guidebook, 9th Field Conference, Permianland. Four Corners Geological Society.Google Scholar
Bassler, R. S. 1953. Bryozoa, p. G2G253. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. G, Bryozoa. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
Behnken, F. H. 1975. Leonardian and Guadalupian (Permian) conodont biostratigraphy in western and southwestern United States. Journal of Paleontology, 49:284315.Google Scholar
Boardman, R. S. 1983. General features of the Class Stenolaemata, p. 49137. In Robison, R. A. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Pt. G, Revised Bryozoa. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
Condra, G. E., and Elias, M. K. 1944. Study and revision of Archimedes (Hall). Geological Society of America, Special Paper 53, 243 p.Google Scholar
Condra, G. E., and Elias, M. K. 1945. Bicorbis arizonica Condra and Elias, new name for B. arizonica. Journal of Paleontology, 19:411.Google Scholar
Darton, N. H. 1910. A reconnaissance of parts of northwestern New Mexico and northern Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 435, 88 p.Google Scholar
Elias, M. K., and Condra, G. E. 1957. Fenestella from the Permian of west Texas. Geological Society of America, Memoir 70, 158 p.Google Scholar
Gilbert, G. K. 1875. Report on the geology of portions of Nevada, Utah, California and Arizona, examined in the years 1871 and 1872. U.S. Geographical Geological Surveys West of the 100th Meridian, Geology 3(1):17187.Google Scholar
Gilmour, E. H., and Vogel, I. D. 1980. Bryozonation of the Toroweap Formation (Permian), western U.S.A. International Geological Congress July 7-17, 1980, Paris, Abstracts 1 (26):165.Google Scholar
Gilmour, E. H., and Walker, R. C. 1986. Bryozoans from the Phosphoria Formation (Permian), southeastern Idaho. Contributions to Geology, University of Wyoming, 24:191209.Google Scholar
Gorjunova, R. V. 1975. The Permian Bryozoa of Pamir. Trudy Paleontological Institute, Nauk S.S.S.R., 148, 125 p.Google Scholar
Hageman, S. J. 1991. Approaches to systematic and evolutionary studies of perplexing groups: an example using fenestrate Bryozoa. Journal of Paleontology, 65:630647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, J. 1883. Bryozoans of the Upper Helderberg and Hamilton groups. Transactions of the Albany Institute, 10:145197.Google Scholar
King, W. 1849. On some families and genera of corals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd Series, 3:388390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehner, R. E. 1958. Geology of the Clarkdale quadrangle, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1021:N511N592.Google Scholar
Longwell, C. R., and Dunbar, C. O. 1936. Problems of Pennsylvanian Permian boundary in southern Nevada. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 20:11981207.Google Scholar
Mansoury-Najand, L. 1990. The petrology and paleoecology of the Toroweap Formation, southern Nevada. Unpubl. , , Cheney, 56 p.Google Scholar
McCoy, F. 1844. A Synopsis of the Characters of the Carboniferous Limestone Fossils of Ireland. McClashan & Gill, Dublin, 207 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKee, E. D. 1938. The environment and history of the Toroweap and Kaibab Formations of northern Arizona and southern Utah. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 429, 268 p.Google Scholar
McKinney, F. K. 1980. The Devonian fenestrate bryozoan Utropora Pocta. Journal of Paleontology, 54:241252.Google Scholar
McKinney, F. K. 1983. Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) from the Permian Kaibab Formation, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Field Museum of Natural History, Fieldiana Geology 1341, 17 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinney, F. K., and Jackson, J. B. C. 1989. Bryozoan Evolution. Unwin Hyman Press, Winchester, Massachusetts, 238 p.Google Scholar
McNair, A. H. 1951. Paleozoic stratigraphy of part of northwestern Arizona. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 35:502541.Google Scholar
Miller, T. G. 1961. 1961. Type specimens of the genus Fenestella from the Lower Carboniferous of Great Britain. Palaeontology, 4:221242.Google Scholar
Morozova, I. P. 1962. On the systematics and phylogeny of the Fenestelloidea. Paleontological Journal, 4:104115.Google Scholar
Morozova, I. P. 1970. Bryozoans of the Late Permian. Trudy Geologiceskogo Museja Akademi Nauk SSSR, Paleontological Institute, 122, 314 p.Google Scholar
Morozova, I. P. 1973. New and little known structures of Fenestelloidea, p. 327333. In Larwood, G. P. (ed.), Living and Fossil Bryozoa. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
Morozova, I. P. 1974. Revision of the bryozoan genus Fenestella. Paleontological Journal, 8:167180.Google Scholar
Morozova, I. P., and Krutchinina, O. N. 1986. Permian Bryozoa of the Arctic, Western Sector. Moscow Science, 144 p.Google Scholar
Nechaev, A. V. 1893. The fauna of the Permian deposits of the eastern margin of European Russia. Trudy Kazanskogo Obshestva estestvoispitatelei, Kazanian University, 34(6), 144 p.Google Scholar
Nickles, J. M., and Bassler, R. S. 1900. A synopsis of American fossil Bryozoa including bibliography and synonymy. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 173, 663 p.Google Scholar
Nikiforova, A. I. 1933. Middle Carboniferous Bryozoa of the Donetz Basin. Transactions of the United Geological and Prospecting Service of U.S.S.R., 237, 46 p.Google Scholar
d'Orbigny, A. 1849. Description de quelques genres nouveaux de Mollusques Bryozaires. Revue Magazin de Zoologische, Series 2, 1:499504.Google Scholar
Ozhgibesov, V. 1983. Artinskian Bryozoa of Permian PreUrals. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, Perm State University, Perm, Russia, 454 p.Google Scholar
Phillips, J. 1836. Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire, or, a Description of the Strata and Organic Remains of the Yorkshire Coast, Part II, The Mountain Limestone District. London, 253p.Google Scholar
Prout, H. A. 1859. Third series of descriptions of Bryozoa from the Paleozoic rocks of the western states and territories. Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science, 1:443452.Google Scholar
Richards, H. G. 1959. New Virgilian and Wolfcampian fenestrate bryozoans from Kansas. Journal of Paleontology, 33:11151119.Google Scholar
Simonsen, A. H. 1991. Fenestrate bryozoans of the Drum Limestone, Pennsylvanian (Missourian) of southeastern Kansas (U.S.A.), p. 417429. In Bigey, F. P. (ed.), Bryozoa Living and Fossil. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de l'Ouest de la France, Memoire HS 1, Nantes.Google Scholar
Simpson, G. B. 1895. A handbook of the genera of the North American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. New York State Geologist Annual Report, 14:402669.Google Scholar
Snyder, E. M. 1976. Taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the Bryozoa of the Gerster Formation (Permian), northeastern Nevada. Unpubl. , , Cheney, 171 p.Google Scholar
Snyder, E. M. 1984. Taxonomy, functional morphology and paleoecology of the Fenestellidae and Polyporidae (Fenestelloidea, Bryozoa) of the Warsaw Formation (Valmeyran, Mississippian) of the Mississippi Valley. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana, 802 p.Google Scholar
Snyder, E. M. 1991a. Revised taxonomic approach to Acanthocladiid Bryozoa, p. 431445. In Bigey, F. P. (ed.), Bryozoa Living and Fossil. Bulletin de la Societe des Sciences Naturelles de l'Ouest de la France, Memoire HS 1, Nantes.Google Scholar
Snyder, E. M. 1991b. Revised taxonomic procedures and paleoecological applications for some North American Mississippian Fenestellidae and Polyporidae (Bryozoa). Paleontographica Americana 57, 275 p.Google Scholar
Swallow, G. C. 1858. Fossils of the Permian rocks of Kansas. Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science, 1:178197.Google Scholar
Tavener-Smith, R. 1966. The micrometic formula and the classification of fenestrate cryptostomes. Palaeontology, 9:413425.Google Scholar
Termier, H., and Termier, G. 1971. Bryozoaires du Paleozoique superieur de l'Afghanistan. Documents de la Laboratoire de Geologie, Faculte des Sciences de Lyon 47, 52 p.Google Scholar
Toula, F. 1875. Permo-Carboniferous of the Westkuste von Spitsbergen. Neue Jahrbuch Mineral and Geology 1875:225264.Google Scholar
Trizna, V. B. 1939. New species of bryozoans from the families Fenestellidae and Acanthocladiidae in the piedmont belt of the Bashkirya. Transactions naucno-issledovatel'skyj geologo-razvedocnyj instituta, Series A, 11:102144.Google Scholar
Trizna, V. B. 1948. Bryozaires du Permien dans le fleuve Sylva. Trudy Vseojuznyj naucno-issledotel'skyj geologo-razvedocnyj instituta, nouvelle serie, facsimile 31:137188.Google Scholar
Trizna, V. B., and Klausan, R. A. 1961. Bryozoans of the Artinskian Stage of the Ufa Plateau and their role in the stratigraphy of this stage in the Ural Region. Trudy Vseojuznyj naucno-issledotel'skyj geologo-razvedocnyj instituta, 122, 436 p.Google Scholar
Ulrich, E. O. 1890. Palaeozoic Bryozoa. Illinois State Geological Survey, 8:283688.Google Scholar
Vine, G. R. 1880. Report of the committee, consisting of Professor P. M. Duncan and Mr. G. R. Vine, appointed for the purpose of reporting on the Carboniferous Polyzoa. British Association for the Advancement of Science, 59th Meeting (Swansea, 1880):7687.Google Scholar
Vogel, I. D. 1976. Bryozoans of the Toroweap Formation, Dry Lake Range and North Muddy Mountains, Clark County, Nevada. Unpubl. , , Cheney, 75 p.Google Scholar
Zittel, K. A. 1880. Handbuch der paleaeontologie. Palaezoologie 1, 765 p.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The order Fenestrata (Bryozoa) of the Toroweap Formation (Permian), southern Nevada
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The order Fenestrata (Bryozoa) of the Toroweap Formation (Permian), southern Nevada
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The order Fenestrata (Bryozoa) of the Toroweap Formation (Permian), southern Nevada
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *