Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-c9gpj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-15T03:43:29.592Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

New paleoscolecid worms from the early Cambrian north margin of the Yangtze Platform, South China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2017

Yuning Yang
Affiliation:
College of Resource and Environment Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China 〈ynyang333@163.com〉, 〈zhaoyuanlong@126.com〉 State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Nanjing 210008, China
Xingliang Zhang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China 〈xzhang69@nwu.edu.cn〉, 〈qiyiru1988@163.com〉, 〈570325901@qq.com〉
Yuanlong Zhao
Affiliation:
College of Resource and Environment Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China 〈ynyang333@163.com〉, 〈zhaoyuanlong@126.com〉
Yiru Qi
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China 〈xzhang69@nwu.edu.cn〉, 〈qiyiru1988@163.com〉, 〈570325901@qq.com〉
Linhao Cui
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China 〈xzhang69@nwu.edu.cn〉, 〈qiyiru1988@163.com〉, 〈570325901@qq.com〉

Abstract

The Cambrian Yanwangbian assemblage (Series 2, Stage 4) in South Shaanxi, China, is one of the Burgess Shale–type faunas as it represents the only relatively diverse Cambrian biota from the north margin of the Yangzte Platform, South China. The paleoscolecids (Cycloneuralia) illustrated herein are one of the major components of the fauna, although they appear to be much less abundant than skeletonized fossils, according to available collections. A new taxon, Shaanxiscolex xixiangensis new genus new species, is described based on the scleritome pattern: each annulus has two rows of alternating Hadimopanella-type plates positioned close to the borders, and a mosaic pattern of microplates occurs between the plates and within intersegmental furrows. The occurrence of the new taxon confirms a fairly diversified and widespread distribution of paleoscolecidan worms recognized in the early Cambrian of South China. Moreover, the ecology of paleoscolecids is reappraised based on burial position of the S. xixiangensis and gut contens of Cambrian taxa from South China, hinting that paleoscolecids (at least some taxa) were both deposit feeders and carnivores, as well as active bioturbators in the substrates of the Cambrian sea, which sheds new light on the ‘Cambrian Substrate Revolution.’

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2017, The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Botting, J.P., Van Roy, P., Bates, D., and Upton, C., 2012, Diverse Middle Ordovician palaeoscolecidan worms from the Builth-Llandrindod Inlier of central Wales: Palaeontology, v. 55, p. 501528.Google Scholar
Budd, G.E., 2001, Why are arthropods segmented?: Evolution and Development, v. 3, p. 332342.Google Scholar
Budd, G.E., 2008, The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, ser. B, Biological Sciences, v. 363, p. 14251434.Google Scholar
Budd, G.E., and Jensen, S., 2000, A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of bilaterian phyla: Biological Reviews, v. 74, p. 253295.Google Scholar
Chen, J.-Y., 2004, [The Dawn of Animal World]: Nanjing, Jiangsu Science and Technical Press, 367 p.Google Scholar
Chen, R.-Y., 1999, [Early Cambrian Bradoriida from Xixiang, Shaanxi Province]: Professional Papers of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, v. 27, p. 106127.Google Scholar
Chen, R.-Y., and Zhang, F.-Y., 1987, [Cambrian stratigraphy of Nanzhen and Xixiang, South Shaanxi]: Journal of Northwest University, v. 2, p. 6375.Google Scholar
Cheng, H.-J., Gao, Q.-B., Wang, Z.-W., Zhang, Y.-Y., Yuan, X.-Q., and Ding, W.-J., 1980, [Cambrian in Xixiang, Shaanxi and the relationship between the formations and the stages]: Journal of Stratigraphy, v. 4, p. 214220.Google Scholar
Conway Morris, S., 1997, The cuticular structure of the 495−Myr−old type species of the fossil worm Palaeoscolex, P. piscatorum (? Priapulida): Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 119, p. 6982.Google Scholar
Conway Morris, S., and Peel, J.S., 2010, New palaeoscolecidan worms from the lower Cambrian: Sirius Passet, Latham Shale and Kinzers Shale: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 55, p. 141156.Google Scholar
Conway Morris, S., and Robison, R.A., 1986, Middle Cambrian priapulids and other soft-bodied fossils from Utah and Spain: Paleontological Contributions to the University of Kansas Papers, v. 117, p. 122.Google Scholar
Dornbos, S.Q., and Chen, J.Y., 2008, Community palaeoecology of the early Cambrian Maotianshan Shale biota: Ecological dominance of priapulid worms: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 258, p. 200212.Google Scholar
Dzik, J., 2005, Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the “Cambrian explosion”: Paleobiology, v. 31, p. 503521.Google Scholar
García-Bellido, D.C., Paterson, J.R., and Edgecombe, G.D., 2013, Cambrian palaeoscolecids (Cycloneuralia) from Gondwana and reappraisal of species assigned to Palaeoscolex : Gondwana Research, v. 24, p. 780795.Google Scholar
Han, J., Yao, Y., Zhang, Z.-F., Liu, J.-N., and Shu, D.-G., 2007a, New observations on the palaeoscolecid worm Tylotites petiolaris from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, south China: Paleontological Research, v. 11, p. 5969.Google Scholar
Han, J., Liu, J.-N., Zhang, Z.-F., Zhang, X.-L., and Shu, D.G., 2007b, Trunk ornamentation on the palaeoscolecid worms Cricocosmia and Tabelliscolex from the early Cambrian Chengjiang deposits of China: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, v. 52, p. 423431.Google Scholar
Harvey, T.H.P., Dong, X.-P., and Donoghue, P.C.J., 2010, Are palaeoscolecids ancestral ecdysozoans?: Evolution and Development, v. 12, p. 177200.Google Scholar
Hicks, M., and Rowland, S.M., 2009, Early Cambrian microbial reefs, archaeocyathan inter-reef communities, and associated facies of the Yangtze platform: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 281, p. 137153.Google Scholar
Hou, X.-G., and Bergström, J., 1994, Palaeoscolecid worms may be nematomorphs rather than annelids: Lethaia, v. 27, p. 1117.Google Scholar
Hou, X.-G., and Sun, W.-G., 1988, [Discovery of Chengjiang fauna at Meishucun, Jinning, Yunnan]: Acta Palaeontological Sinica, v. 27, p. 112.Google Scholar
Hou, X.-G., Aldridge, R.J., Bergström, J., Siveter, D.J., Siveter, D.J., and Feng, X.H., 2004, The Cambrian fossils of Chengjiang, China: The flowering of early animal life: Oxford, Blackwell Science Ltd. Press, 223 p.Google Scholar
Hu, S.-X., 2005, Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the early Cambrian Chengjiang Biota from Eastern Yunnan: China, Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, v. 7, p. 1197.Google Scholar
Hu, S.-X., Li, -Y., Luo, H.-L., Fu, X.-P., You, T., Pang, J.-Y., Liu, Q., and Steiner, M., 2008, New record of palaeoscolecids from the early Cambrian of Yunnan: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 82, p. 244248.Google Scholar
Hu, S.-X., Steiner, M., Zhu, M.-Y., Luo, H.-L., Forchielli, A., Keupp, H., Zhao, F.-C., and Liu, Q., 2012, A new priapulid assemblage from the early Cambrian Guanshan fossil Lagerstätte of SW China: Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 87, p. 93106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, D.-Y., 2005, Early Cambrian worms from SW China: Morphology, systematics, lifestyle and evolutionary significance [Ph.D. thesis]: Lyon, University Lyon, v. 1, 245 p.Google Scholar
Huang, D.-Y., Chen, J.-Y., Zhu, M.-Y., and Zhao, F.-C., 2014, The burrow dwelling behavior and locomotion of palaeoscolecidian worms: New fossil evidence from the Cambrian Chengjiang fauna: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 398, p. 154164.Google Scholar
Ivantsov, A.Y., and Wrona, R., 2004, Articulated palaescolecid sclerite arrays from the lower Cambrian of eastern Siberia: Acta Geologica Polonica, v. 54, p. 122.Google Scholar
Ivantsov, A.Y., and Zhuravlev, A.Y., 2005, [Cephalorhynchs], in Ponomarenko, A.G., ed., [Unique Sinsk Localities of Early Cambrian Organisms (Siberian Platform)]: Moscow, Trudy Paleontologicheskii Instituta RAN, p. 6172.Google Scholar
Liu, Y., Zhang, X.-L., Liu, W., and Zhang, Q., 2008, New bradoriids from the lower Cambrian Yanwangbian formation of southern Shaanxi Province: Central China, Palaeoworld, v. 17, p. 102107.Google Scholar
Luo, H.-L., Fu, X.-P., Hu, S.-X., Li, Y., Chen, L.-Z., You, T., and Liu, Q., 2006, [New bivalved arthropods from the lower Cambrian Guanshan fauna in the Kunming and Wuding areas]: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, v. 45, p. 460472.Google Scholar
Maas, A., 2013, Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera: The fossil record, in Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., ed., Handbook of Zoology. Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera. 1, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera: Berlin, De Gruyter, p. 1128.Google Scholar
Maas, A., Huang, D.-Y., Chen, J.-Y., Waloszek, D., and Braun, A., 2007, Maotianshan Shale nemathelminthes—morphology, biology and the phylogeny of Nemathelminthes: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 254, p. 288306.Google Scholar
Martin, E.L.O., Lerosey-Aubril, R., and Vannier, J., 2016, Palaeoscolecid worms from the Lower Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte, Morocco: Palaeoecological and palaeogeographical implications: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 460, p. 130141.Google Scholar
Müller, K.J., and Hinz-Schallreuter, I., 1993, Palaeoscolecid worms from the middle Cambrian of Australia: Palaeontology , v. 36, p. 549592.Google Scholar
Paterson, J.R., Jago, J.B., Gehling, J.G., García-Bellido, D.C., Edgecombe, G.D., and Lee, M.S.Y., 2008, Early Cambrian arthropods from the Emu Bay Shale Lagerstätte, South Australia, in Rábano, I., Gozalo, R., and García-Bellido, D., eds., Advances in Trilobite Research: Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, v. 9, p. 313320.Google Scholar
Peng, S., Babcock, L E., and Cooper, R.A., 2012, The Cambrian Period, in Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M., and Ogg, G., eds., Geological Time Scale 2012: Oxford, Elsevier, p. 437488.Google Scholar
Topper, T.P., Brock, G.A., Skovsted, C.B., and Paterson, J.R., 2010, Palaeoscolecid scleritome fragments with Hadimopanella plates from the early Cambrian of South Australia: Geological Magazine, v. 147, p. 8697.Google Scholar
Vannier, J., Calandra, I., Gaillard, C., and Zylinska, A., 2010, Priapulid worms: Pioneer horizontal burrowers at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary: Geology, v. 38, p. 711714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webster, B.L., Copley, R.R., Jenner, R.A., Mackenzie-Dodds, J.A., Bourlat, S.J., Rota-Stabelli, O., Littlewood, D.T.J., and Telford, M.J., 2006, Mitogenomics and phylogenomics reveal priapulid worms as extant models of the ancestral ecdysozoan: Evolution and Development, v. 8, p. 502510.Google Scholar
Whittard, W.F., 1953, Palaeoscolex piscatorum gen et sp. nov., a worm from the Tremadocian of Shropshire: Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 109, p. 125135.Google Scholar
Wills, M.A., Gerber, S., Ruta, M., and Hughes, M., 2012, The disparity of priapulid, archaeopriapulid and palaeoscolecid worms in the light of new data: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, v. 25, p. 20562076.Google Scholar
Yang, H.-N., Mao, Y.-Y., Pan, B., and Li, G.-X., 2016, [Microfacies sequences of the early Cambrian (Series 2) Xiannudong Formation reefs in Southern Shaanxi Province, NW China]: Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, v. 33, p. 7586.Google Scholar
Yang, Y.-N., 2016, [Taxonomy and evolution of Cambrian priapulids from South China] [Ph.D. thesis]: Xi’an, Northwest University, 172 p.Google Scholar
Yang, Y.-N., and Zhang, X.-L., 2016, The Cambrian palaeoscolecid Wronascolex from the Shipai fauna (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) of the Three Gorges Area, South China: Papers in Palaeontology, v. 2, p. 555568.Google Scholar
Zhang, X.-G., and Pratt, B.R., 1996, Early Cambrian palaeoscolecid cuticles from Shaanxi, China: Journal of Paleontology, v. 70, p. 275279.Google Scholar
Zhang, X.-G., Hou, X.-G., and Bergström, J., 2006, Early Cambrian priapulid worms buried with their lined burrows: Geological Magazine, v. 143, p. 743748.Google Scholar
Zhang, X.-L., and Hua, H., 2005, Soft-bodied fossils from the Shipai Formation, lower Cambrian of the Three Gorge area, South China: Geological Magazine, v. 142, p. 699709.Google Scholar
Zhang, X.-L., Liu, W., and Zhao, Y.-L., 2008, Cambrian Burgess Shale-type Lagerstätten in South China: Distribution and significance: Gondwana Research, v. 14, p. 255262.Google Scholar
Zhao, F.-C., Caron, J.-B., Bottjer, D.J., Hu, S.-X., Yin, Z.-J., and Zhu, M.-Y., 2014, Diversity and species abundance patterns of the early Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3) Chengjiang Biota from China: Paleobiology, v. 40, p. 5069.Google Scholar
Zhu, M.-Y., 2010, [The origin and Cambrian explosion of animals: Fossil evidences from China]: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, v. 49, p. 269287.Google Scholar
Zrzavý, J., 2003, Gastrotricha and metazoan phylogeny: Zoologica Scripta, v. 32, p. 6181.Google Scholar