Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-r5zm4 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-21T04:37:52.923Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

First occurrence of Orthotheca Novák, 1886 (Hyolitha, Early Devonian) in North America

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2015

John M. Malinky*
Affiliation:
Physical Science Department, San Diego City College, San Diego, California 92101,

Abstract

Family Orthothecidae Sysoev, 1958 is herein emended to encompass only hyoliths that possess a very shallow longitudinal ventral concavity and a tightly rounded dorsum, resulting in a near-triangular to only slightly kidney-shaped cross section. Orthotheca Novak, 1886 is restricted to orthothecids that possess longitudinal ornamentation on the dorsum, with Cryptocaris suavis Barrande, 1872 now recognized as the type species of that genus. Based on the revised generic concept, orthothecids from the Lower Devonian (Emsian) Shriver Chert of northeastern Pennsylvania are here included within the genus as Orthotheca shriveri n. sp., making this the first occurrence of the genus in North America. The Orthothecida were a group of sessile, benthic hyoliths that ranged from Early Cambrian to Early Devonian. Their life habit appeared to have included filter-feeding. Their ability to retract the operculum into the shell when closed probably aided in preventing sediment influx, and the ventral furrow may have been an adaptation to differing degrees of firmness of the underlying substrate. Despite faunal linkages between the Devonian paleocontinents, the majority of orthothecid genera seem to be largely restricted to their type areas, although Orthotheca documented herein has eroded slightly their endemic character.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Barrande, J. 1867. Systême Silurien du Centre de la Bohême. Ordre des Ptéropodes, 3. Prague and Paris, (published by the author), 79 p.Google Scholar
Barrande, J. 1872. Systême Silurien du Centre de la Bohême. Supplemént au Vol. 1, Trilobites, crustacés divers et poissons. 35 plates.Google Scholar
Barrett, S. T. 1876. Notes on the lower Helderberg rocks of Port Jervis, New York, with descriptions of a new pteropod. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, 11:290299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berg-Madsen, V. and Malinky, J. M. 1999. A revision of Holm's Late Mid and Middle Cambrian hyoliths of Sweden. Palaeontology, 42:841885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busch, R. M. and Swartz, F. M. 1985. Molting and description of a new homalonotid trilobite from Pennsylvania. Journal of Paleontology, 59:10621074.Google Scholar
Chlupáč, I. 1993. Geology of the Barrandian. A Field Trip Guide. Senckenberg-Buch, 69. Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft and Czech State Geological Survey, 163 p.Google Scholar
Clarke, J. 1885. On the higher Devonian faunas of Ontario County, New York. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 16, 86 p.Google Scholar
Clarke, J. 1894. New or rare species of fossils from the Livonia salt shaft. New York State Geologist Annual Report, 1894:160180.Google Scholar
Clarke, J. M. 1907. Some new Devonic fossils. New York State Museum Bulletin, 107:153291.Google Scholar
Cobbold, E. S. 1919. Cambrian Hyolithidae, etc. from the Harthill in the Nuneaton District, Warwickshire. Geological Magazine, 6:149158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cobbold, E. S. 1921. The Cambrian horizons of Comley (Shropshire) and their Brachiopoda, Pteropoda, Gasteropoda, etc. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 76:325386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cocks, L. R. M. and Torsvik, T. H. 2002. Earth geography from 500 to 400 million years ago: A faunal and paleomagnetic review. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 159:631644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, G. A., Arellano, A. R. V., Johnson, J. H., Okulitch, V. J., Stoyanow, A., and Lochman, C. 1952. Cambrian stratigraphy and paleontology near Caborca, northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 119(1):1184.Google Scholar
Ebbestad, J. O. R. and Peel, J. S. 1997. Attempted predation and shell repair in Middle and Upper Ordovician gastropods from Sweden. Journal of Paleontology, 71:10071019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichwald, K. E. von. 1840. Über das silurische Schichtensystem in Esthland. Zeitschrift für Natur- und Heilkunde der königlisch Medicinisch-chirurgischen Akademie St. Petersburg, 1/2, 210 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellison, R. L. 1965. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Mahantango Formation in south-central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bulletin, G48, 298 p.Google Scholar
Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities, W98W143. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Miscellanea. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
Galle, A., Marek, L., Vannier, J., Racheboeuf, P. R., and Regnault, S. 1994. Assemblage epibenthique a hyolithes, tabule epizoaire et ostracode Beyrichiacea du Devonien inférieur du Maroc et D'espagnie. Revue de Paléobiologie, 13:411425.Google Scholar
Groom, T. 1902. The sequence of the Cambrian and associated beds of the Malvern Hills. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 58:89135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, J. 1862. Fifteenth Annual Report on the Conditions of the State Cabinet of Natural History and the Historical and Antiquarian Collection Annexed Thereto. Charles van Benthuysen and Sons, Albany.Google Scholar
Hall, J. 1876. Illustrations of Devonian fossils: Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, Crustacea and Corals of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton and Chemung Groups. Weed, Parsons and Company, Albany, 39 pls. (no text).Google Scholar
Hall, J. 1879. Palaeontology of New York, Vol. 5. Pt. 2. Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. Geological Survey of the State of New York. C. van Benthuysen and Sons, Albany, 492 p.Google Scholar
Hall, J. 1888. Palaeontology of New York, volume 7, supplement containing descriptions and illustrations of Pteropoda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. Geological Survey of the State of New York. C. van Benthuysen and Sons, Albany, 42 p.Google Scholar
Hiller, N. 1990. Devonian hyoliths in South Africa, and their palaeoenvironmental significance. Palaeontologica Africana, 27:58.Google Scholar
Hodych, J. P. and Buchan, K. I. 1998. Paleomagnetism of the ca. 440 Ma Cape St. Mary's sills of the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland: implications for Iapetus Ocean closure. Geophysical Research International, 135:155164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holm, G. 1893. Sveriges kambrisk-siluriska Hyolithidae och Conulariidae. Sveriges geologiska Undersökning, Afhandlingar och Uppsatser, C 112, 172 p.Google Scholar
Horny, R. 1999. Lower Ordovician Nephrotheca šarkaensis (Orthothecida, Hyolitha) with fossilized intestinal contents in situ (Šarka Formation, Bohemia). Časopis Národního Muzea, 167:9598.Google Scholar
Karpinsky, A. P. 1884. Die fossilien Pteropoden am Osthabhange des Urals, 443460. Akademiya Nauk Souza SSR (reprinted 1945).Google Scholar
Kase, T., Hamada, T., and Niko, S. 1987. First record of a hyolith (Paleozoic Mollusca) from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Tokyo, series C, 13:2934.Google Scholar
Knod, R. 1908. Devonische Faunen Boliviens, p. 493600. In Steinmann, G. (ed.), Beiträge zur Geologie und Paläontologie von Südamerika. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 25.Google Scholar
Kruse, P. D. 1990. Cambrian palaeontology of the Daly basin. Northern Territory Geological Survey Report 7, 58 p.Google Scholar
Landing, E. 1988. Lower Cambrian of eastern Massachusetts: Stratigraphy and small shelly fossils. Journal of Paleontology, 62:661695.Google Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 1987. Taxonomic revision of lower and middle Paleozoic Orthothecida (Hyolitha) from North America and China. Journal of Paleontology, 61:942959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 1988. Early Paleozoic Hyolitha from North America: Reexamination of Walcott's and Resser's type specimens. Journal of Paleontology, 62(2):218233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 2002. A revision of early to Mid Ordovician hyoliths from Sweden. Palaeontology, 45:511555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 2003a. Ordovician and Silurian hyoliths and gastropods reassigned from the Hyolitha from the Girvan District, Scotland. Journal of Paleontology, 77:625645.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 2003b. New Middle and Late Ordovician hyoliths from Estonia. Journal of Paleontology, 77:304313.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. 2006. Revision of Hyolitha from the Ordovician of Estonia. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 80:88106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. and Berg-Madsen, V. 1999. A revision of Holm's Early and early Middle Cambrian hyoliths of Sweden. Palaeontology, 42:2565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malinky, J. M. and Lichtenberger, M. 2005. Hyolitha and other problematica from the Rhine Slate Mountains (Lower Devonian), and their palaeobiological significance. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Paläontologie, 238:79106.Google Scholar
Malinky, J. M. and Skovsted, C. 2004. Hyoliths and small shelly fossils from the Lower Cambrian of North-East Greenland. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 49:551578.Google Scholar
Malinky, J. M., Linsley, R. M. and Yochelson, E. L. 1987. Taxonomic revision of Hyolitha from the Middle Paleozoic of North America. Journal of Paleontology, 61:11731186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marek, L. 1963. New knowledge on the morphology of Hyolithes. Sborník geologických věd, řada Paleontologie, 1:5372.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1966. New hyolithid genera from the Ordovician of Bohemia. Časopis národního muzea, 135:8992.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1967. The class Hyolitha in the Caradoc of Bohemia. Sborník geologických věd, řada paleontologie, 9:51113.Google Scholar
Marek, L. 1983. The hyoliths in the Arenigian of the Montagne Noire, p. 5762. In Courtessole, R., Marek, L., Pilet, J., Ubaghs, G., and Vizcaino, D. (eds.), Calymenia, Echinodermata et Hyolitha de l'Ordovicien inferieur de la Montagne Noire (France Meridionale). Mémoire de la Société d'Etudes Scientifiques de l'Aude.Google Scholar
Marek, L. and Isaacson, P. E. 1992. Devonian hyoliths from Bolivia. Journal of Paleontology, 66:2428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marek, L., Malinky, J. M., and Geyer, G. 1997. Middle Cambrian fossils from Tizi n' Tichka, the High Atlas, Morocco. Pt. 2. Hyolitha. Journal of Paleontology, 71:638656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marek, L., Parsley, R. J., and Galle, A. 1997. Functional morphology of hyoliths based on flume studies. Věstník Českého geologického ústav, 72:351358.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1885a. A new genus of Cambrian Pteropods. Canadian Record of Science (Canadian Naturalist), 1:149152.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1885b. Notice of a new genus of Pteropods from the Saint John Group (Cambrian). American Journal of Science, series 3, 25:293294.Google Scholar
Matthew, G. F. 1886. Illustrations of the fauna of the St. John Group continued. No. III. Descriptions of new genera and species, (including a description of a new species of Solenopleura, by J. F. Whiteaves). Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, series 4, 3:2984(for 1885).Google Scholar
Mauz, J. 1933. Zur Fauna der Unterkoblenz Stufe. Senckenbergiana, 15:274294.Google Scholar
Meshkova, N. P. 1974. Khiolity nizhnego kembriya Sibirskoe platformy [Lower Cambrian hyoliths of the Siberian Platform], p. 1110. In Zhuravleva, I. T. (ed.),. Trudy Instituta Geologii i Geofiziki. SO AN SSSR, 97, Novosibirsk.Google Scholar
Milici, R. C. and Swezey, C. S. 2006. Assessment of the Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Devonian Shale – Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006–1237. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1237/index.hotmailCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Missarzhesvky, V. V. 1969. Opisanie khiolitov, gastropod, khiolitel'mintov, kamenid i form neyasnogo sistematicheskogo polozheniya [Descriptions of hyoliths, gastropods, hyolithelminths, camenids, and forms of an obscure systematic position], p. 105175. In Rozanov, A. Yu., Missarzhevskij, V. V., Volkova, N. A., Voronova, L. G., Krylov, I. N., Keller, B. M., Korolyuk, I. K., Lendzion, K., Mikhnyak, R., Pykhova, N. G., and Sidorov, A. D. (eds.), Tommotskii yarus i problema nizhnej granitsy Kembriya. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Ordena Trudovogo krasnogo znameni Geologicheskii Institut, Trudy, 206, Nauka Publishers, Moscow.Google Scholar
Missarzhesvky, V. V. 1989. Drevnejskie skeletnye okamenelosti i stratigrafiya pogranichnykh tolshch dokembriya i kembriya [Oldest skeletal fossils and stratigraphy of the Precambrian and Cambrian boundary beds]. Trudy Ordena Trudov, Krasnogo Zhameni geologicheskij Institut Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 443, 238 p., Nauka Publishers, Moscow.Google Scholar
Novák, O. 1886. Zur Kenntniss der Fauna der Etage F-fl in der palaeozischen Schichtengruppe Böhmens. Aus den Sitzungsberichten der königlichen böhmens Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 27 p.Google Scholar
Novák, O. 1891. Revision der palaeozoischen Hyolithiden Böhmens. Abhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwisschenschaftlichen Classe der böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, series 7, 4:148.Google Scholar
Poulsen, C. 1932. The Lower Cambrian faunas of East Greenland. Meddelelser om Gr⊘nland, 87:166.Google Scholar
Qian, Y. 1977. Hyolitha and some problematica from the Lower Cambrian Meishucun Stage in central and SW China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 16:255278. (In Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar
Qian, Y. 1983. Hyolitha, p. 286289. In (anonymous)Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (ed.), Palaeontological Atlas of East China. Volume of the Early Paleozoic, 1. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar
Qian, Y. 1989. Early Cambrian small shelly fossils of China with special reference to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Nanjing University Publishing House, Nanjing, 341 p.Google Scholar
Qian, Y. 1997. Classification and early evolution of hyoliths. National Museum of Natural Science Research Journal, 10:251254.Google Scholar
Qian, Y., Chen, M., and Chen, Y. 1979. Hyolithids and other small shelly fossils from the Lower Cambrian Huangshandong Formation in the eastern part of the Yangtze Gorge. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 18:207230. (In Chinese with English summary)Google Scholar
Reed, F. R. C. 1904. Mollusca from the Bokkeveld Beds. Annals of the South African Museum, 4:239272.Google Scholar
Reed, F. R. C. 1908. New fossils from the Bokkeveld beds. Annals of the South African Museum, 4:381406.Google Scholar
Reed, F. R. C. 1909. Lower Palaeozoic Hyolithidae from Girvan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 47:203222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, F. R. C. 1925. Revision of the fauna of the Bokkeveld beds. Annals of the South African Museum, 22:27225.Google Scholar
Resser, C. 1938. Fourth contribution to the nomenclature of Cambrian fossils. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 97, 12 p.Google Scholar
Roemer, F. A. 1866. Beiträge zur geologischen Kenntniss des nordwestlichen Harzgebirges. Palaeontolographica, 15:201236.Google Scholar
Runnegar, B. N. 1980. Hyolitha: status of the phylum. Lethaia, 13:2125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Runnegar, B. N., Pojeta, J., Morris, N. J., Taylor, J. D., Taylor, M. E., and McClung, G. 1975. Biology of the Hyolitha. Lethaia, 8:181191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandberger, G. and Sandberger, F. 1856. Die Versteinerungen des rhenischen Schichtensystems in Nassau. Mit einer kurtzgefassten Geognosie dieses Gebietes und mit steter Berücksichtigung analoger Schichten anderer Länder. Kriedel und Niedener, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
Signor, P. W. III, McMenamin, M. A. S., Gervirtzman, D. A., and Mount, J. F. 1983. Two new pre-trilobite faunas from western North America. Nature, 303:415418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Signor, P. W., Mount, J. F., and Onken, B. R. 1987. A pre-trilobite fauna from the White-Inyo region of eastern California and western Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 61:425438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinclair, G. W. 1946. Notes on the nomenclature of Hyolithes. Journal of Paleontology, 20:7285.Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1957. K morfologii, sistematike i sistematicheskomu polozheniu khiolitiov. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 116(2):304307. [translated: To the morphology, systematics and systematic position of the Hyolithoidea. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady].Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1958. Nadotryad Hyolithoidea [Superorder Hyolithoidea], p. 184190. In Orlov, Yu. A., Luppov, N. P., and Drushchits, V. V. (eds.), Osnovy paleontologii. Molluski-golovongie II. Akademii Nauk SSSR, 2. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1959a. Sistematika khiolitov. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 1959:397400. [translated: The systematics of the hyolithids. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 1959:335–357].Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1959b. Ekologiya khiolitov. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 1959:892895[translated as: Ecology of the hyolithids. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Doklady 1959:800–802].Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1962. Khiolity kembriya severnogo sklona Aldanskogo shchita [Cambrian hyolithids from the northern slope of the Aldan shield]. AN SSSR, Yakutskij filial Sibirskogo otdeleniya, Yakutsk, 65 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1968. Stratigrafiya i khiolity drevnejshikh sloev nizhnego kembriya Sibirskoj platformy [Stratigraphy and hyoliths of the oldest Lower Cambrian beds of the Siberian platform]. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Yakutskii filial, Sibirskogo otdeleniya, Yakutsk, 67 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1972. Biostratigrafiya i khiolity ortotetsiomorfy nizhnego kembriya Sibirskoj platformy [Biostratigraphy and orthothecomorph hyoliths from the Lower Cambrian of the Siberian platform]. Akademii Nauk SSSR, Yakutskii filial, Sibirskogo otdeleniya, 152 p. (In Russian)Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1973. Nekotoryye zakonomernosti rosta gazovykh kamer rannekembryskikh khiolitov. Paleontologischeskii Zhurnal, 1973:5358[translated: Some features of gas chamber growth in the Early Cambrian hyoliths. Paleontological Journal, 1973:331–333].Google Scholar
Sysoev, V. A. 1984. Morfologiya i sistematicheskoye khiolitov. Paleontologischeskii Zhurnal, 1984:314[translated: The morphology and systematics of the hyoliths. Paleontological Journal, 1984:1–9].Google Scholar
Thoral, M. 1935. Contribution à l'étude paléontologique de l'Ordovicien inférieur de la Montagne Noire et révision sommaire de la faune cambrienne de la Montagne Noire. 1362, Montpellier.Google Scholar
Ulrich, A. 1892. Paleozoische Versteinerungen aus Bolivien. In Steinmann, G. (ed.), Beiträge zur Geologie und Paläontologie von Südamerika. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 8:5116.Google Scholar
Val'kov, A. K. 1975. Biostratigrafiya i khiolity kembriya severo-vostoka Sibirskoe platformy [Cambrian biostratigraphy and hyoliths of the northeastern Siberian Platform]. Akademii Nauka SSSR, Moscow, 139 p. (in Russian)Google Scholar
Val'kov, A. K. 1990. Taksonomiya vysshikh kategorii khiolitov [Taxonomy of the higher categories of the hyoliths], p. 3450. In Sokolov, B. S. and Zhuravleva, I. T. (eds.), Iskopaemye problematiki SSSR. Trudy Institut Geologii i Geofiziki SO AN SSSR, 783.Google Scholar
Williams, J. S. 1935. Paleontology, p. 830859. In Cooper, G.A. and Williams, J. S. (eds.), Tully Formation of New York. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America.Google Scholar
Wills, M. A. 1993. Mollusca Incertae Sedis, p. 265270. In Benton, M. J. (ed.), The Fossil Record 2. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
Yochelson, E. L. 1987. Redescription of Spirodentalium (Gastropoda) from the Late Cambrian of Wisconsin. Journal of Paleontology, 61:6669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, W. 1974. Cambrian Hyoliths. In anonymous, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica. Handbook of the Stratigraphic Palaeontology in southwest China, 111113. Science Publishing House, Beijing. (In Chinese)Google Scholar