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Lead-free piezoelectric materials and composites for high power density energy harvesting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2018

Deepam Maurya*
Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; and Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Mahesh Peddigari
Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508, Republic of Korea
Min-Gyu Kang
Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Liwei D. Geng
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931, USA
Nathan Sharpes
Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center, US Army RDECOM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005, USA
Venkateswarlu Annapureddy
Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 620015, India
Haribabu Palneedi
Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508, Republic of Korea
Rammohan Sriramdas
Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Yongke Yan
Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Hyun-Cheol Song
Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea
Yu U. Wang
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931, USA
Jungho Ryu*
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea
Shashank Priya*
Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; and Materials Research Institute, Penn State, University Park, PA 16802, USA
a)Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail:
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In the emerging era of Internet of Things (IoT), power sources for wireless sensor nodes in conjunction with efficient and secure wireless data transfer are required. Energy harvesting technologies are promising solution toward meeting the requirements for sustainable power sources for the IoT. In this review, we focus on approaches for harvesting stray vibrations and magnetic field due to their abundance in the environment. Piezoelectric materials and piezoelectric–magnetostrictive [magnetoelectric (ME)] composites can be used to harvest vibration and magnetic field, respectively. Currently, such harvesters use modified lead zirconate titanate (or lead-based) piezoelectric materials and ME composites. However, environmental concerns and government regulations require the development of a suitable lead-free replacement for lead-based piezoelectric materials. In the past decade, several lead-free piezoelectric compositions have been developed and demonstrated with promising piezoelectric response. This paper reviews the significant results reported on lead-free piezoelectric materials with respect to high-density energy harvesting, covering novel processing techniques for improving the piezoelectric response and temperature stability. The review of the state-of-the-art studies on vibration and magnetic field harvesting is provided and the results are used to discuss various strategies for designing high-performance energy harvesting devices.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2018 

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These authors contributed equally to this work.

This section of Journal of Materials Research is reserved for papers that are reviews of literature in a given area.

This article has been updated since original publication. A correction notice detailing the change has also been published at doi:10.1557/jmr.2018.227.



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