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Increasing the mean grain size in copper films and features

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

K. Vanstreels*
Affiliation:
Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium; and Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, Division Imomec, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
S.H. Brongersma
Affiliation:
Stichting Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) Nederland, High Tech Campus 48, 5605 KN Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Zs. Tokei
Affiliation:
Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
L. Carbonell
Affiliation:
Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
W. De Ceuninck
Affiliation:
Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium; and Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, Division Imomec, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
J. D’Haen
Affiliation:
Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium; and Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, Division Imomec, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
M. D’Olieslaeger
Affiliation:
Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium; and Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC) vzw, Division Imomec, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
*
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: kris.vanstreels@uhasselt.be
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Abstract

A new grain-growth mode is observed in thick sputtered copper films. This new grain-growth mode, also referred to in this work as super secondary grain growth (SSGG) leads to highly concentric grain growth with grain diameters of many tens of micrometers, and drives the system toward a {100} texture. The appearance, growth dynamics, final grain size, and self-annealing time of this new grain-growth mode strongly depends on the applied bias voltage during deposition of these sputtered films, the film thickness, the post-deposition annealing temperature, and the properties of the copper diffusion barrier layers used in this work. Moreover, a clear rivalry between this new growth mode and the regularly observed secondary grain-growth mode in sputtered copper films was found. The microstructure and texture evolution in these films is explained in terms of surface/interface energy and strain-energy density minimizing driving forces, where the latter seems to be an important driving force for the observed new growth mode. By combining these sputtered copper films with electrochemically deposited (ECD) copper films of different thickness, the SSGG growth mode could also be introduced in ECD copper, but this led to a reduced final SSGG grain size for thicker ECD films. The knowledge about the thin-film level is used to also implement this new growth mode in small copper features by slightly modifying the standard deposition process. It is shown that the SSGG growth mode can be introduced in narrow structures, but optimizations are still necessary to further increase the mean grain size in features.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2008

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References

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