In the present study, the nematicidal activity of a Moringa oleifera ethyl acetate leaf extract against the eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Nacobbus aberrans, nematodes of agricultural importance, was evaluated. The experimental design for the evaluation of the effects against both nematodes consisted of eight treatments (n = 4). Distilled water, Tween (4%) and a commercial anthelmintic agent (ivermectin, 5 mg/mL) were used as controls, and for treatments 4–8, the concentrations of the extract were 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. Readings were taken at 12 h and 24 h for N. aberrans and 48 h and 72 h for H. contortus post-treatment under an optical microscope (10× and 40×). The data obtained were analysed by analysis of variance through a completely randomized factorial design using the SAS V9 program. The results show that, for H. contortus egg hatching, 85.88% inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 20 mg/mL at 48 h, while for third-stage larva (L3) mortality, the highest percentage was 68.19% at 1.25 mg/mL at 72 h. In the case of N. aberrans, the greatest inhibition of egg hatching was 90.69% at 5 mg/mL at 12 h post-treatment, and for larval mortality, it was 100% at 10 mg/mL at 24 h post-treatment. The main major compounds identified by qualitative analysis and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-, n-hexadecanoic acid and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and the minor compounds included phytol, γ-sitosterol and α-tocopheryl acetate. It was demonstrated that the ethyl acetate leaf extract of M. oleifera Lam. shows great potential for combating agricultural nematodes.