Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-sh8wx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-19T07:17:48.879Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

‘The common aim of the Allied Powers’: social policy and international legitimacy in wartime China, 1940–47

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 May 2014

Tehyun Ma*
Department of History, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK E-mail:


This article examines why Western programmes of social security became a topic of interest for Chinese Nationalist (Guomindang) policy-makers during the early 1940s. It traces a generation of sociologists and civil servants, often trained abroad, who used wartime exigencies to make the case for New Deal-style reforms. While offering a route to professional advancement, social insurance was primarily intended to serve the needs of the government. Embedded in, and dependent on, the Anglo-American alliance, Nationalist party planners embraced the internationalist social agenda of the Atlantic Charter – advanced by institutions such as the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration – to solidify their nation's status as an aspiring great power, and to legitimize to foreign sponsors their hold on the state. In this regard, fascination with the likes of the Beveridge Report and the Social Security Act was a performance, intended to show how China was in keeping with the spirit of the age.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 For exceptions, see Chen, Janet, Guilty of indigence: the urban poor in China, 1900–1953, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Nathan, Andrew, A history of the China International Famine Relief Commission, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Howard, Joshua H., Workers at war: labor in China's arsenals, 1937–1953, Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 2004, pp. 146147Google Scholar;

Frazier, Mark W., The making of the Chinese industrial workplace: state, revolution, and labor management, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2002, pp. 1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 26–7. These accounts, however, do not cover the concept of social security in depth, and only briefly analyse specific policies such as labour insurance.

2 Chinese borrowing of foreign models was commonplace. See, for instance, Kirby, William C., ‘The internationalization of China: foreign relations at home and abroad in the Republican era’, China Quarterly, 150, 1997, pp. 433458CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Kirby, William C., Germany and republican China, Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1984Google Scholar;

Zanasi, Margherita, Saving the nation: economic modernity in republican China, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 2006, pp. 106111CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Zanasi, Margherita, ‘Exporting development: the League of Nations and republican China’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 49, 1, 2007, pp. 143169CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Li, Chang, Guoji hezuo zai Zhongguo: Guoji lianmeng jiaose de kaocha, 1919–1946 (International cooperation in China: study of the role of the League of Nations, 1919–1946), Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, 1999Google Scholar;

Chen, Guilty of indigence, pp. 22–24Google Scholar;

Shue, Vivienne, ‘The quality of mercy: Confucian charity and the mixed metaphors of modernity in Tianjin’, Modern China, 32, 4, 2006, p. 425CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Schneider, Helen, Keeping the nation's house: domestic management and the making of modern China, Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2011Google Scholar, ch. 1;

Fu, Jia-chen, ‘Society's laboratories: biomedical nutrition and the modern China body, 1910–50’, PhD thesis, Yale University, 2009Google Scholar, ch. 3;

Chiang, Yung-chen, Social engineering and social sciences in China 1919–1949, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2001Google Scholar, ch. 2.

3 Joseph Stilwell, ed. Theodore H. White, The Stilwell papers: General Joseph W. Stilwell's iconoclastic account of America's adventures in China, New York: Schocken Books, 1972. See Eastman, Lloyd, Seeds of destruction: Nationalist China in war and revolution, 1937–1949, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984Google Scholar;

Pepper, Suzanne, Civil war in China: the political struggle, 1945–1949, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978Google Scholar, ch. 1.

4 Dikötter, Frank, The age of openness: China before Mao, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2008Google Scholar.

5 Ven, Hans van de, War and nationalism in China, 1925–1945, London: Routledge, 2003Google Scholar, ch. 7;

Mitter, Rana, Forgotten ally: China's World War II, 1937–45, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2013Google Scholar;

Bian, Morris L., The making of the state enterprise system in modern China: the dynamics of institutional change, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also the special issue of the European Journal of East Asian Studies, 11, 2, 2012, on ‘Relief and reconstruction in wartime China’; and essays by Rana Mitter, Andres Rodriguez, and Felix Boecking in a special issue on ‘China in World War II’ in Modern Asian Studies, 45, 4, 2011.

6 Rodgers, Daniel T., Atlantic crossings: social politics in a progressive age, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1998Google Scholar;

Rodgers, Daniel T., ‘The Age of Social Politics’, in Thomas Bender, ed., Rethinking American history in a global age, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, pp. 250273CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Schäfer, Axel R., American progressives and German social reform, 1875–1920: social ethics, moral control, and the regulatory state in a transatlantic context, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000Google Scholar;

Kloppenberg, James T., Uncertain victory: social democracy and progressivism in European and American thought, 1870–1920, Oxford: Oxford University, 1986Google Scholar;

Ekbladh, David, The great American mission: modernization and the construction of an American world order, Princeton: Princeton University, 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 Clavin, Patricia, ‘Defining human security: roads to war and peace, 1918–1945’, in Claus-Christian W. Szejnmann, ed., Rethinking history, dictatorship and war: new approaches and interpretations, London: Continuum, 2009, p. 72Google Scholar. Sandrine Kott and Jia-Chen Fu have made similar arguments about the League and its affiliates: see

Kott, Sandrine, ‘Constructing a European social model’, in Jasmien van Daele et al., eds., ILO histories: essays on the International Labour Organization and its impact on the world during the twentieth century, Bern: Peter Lang, 2010, pp. 181182Google Scholar;

Fu, ‘Society's laboratories’, p. 157Google Scholar.

8 Amrith, Sunil and Clavin, Patricia, ‘Feeding the world: connecting Europe and Asia, 1930–1945’, Past and Present, Supplement 8, 2013, pp. 3032Google Scholar, 48–50.

9 Xu Guoqi shows that behind China's multiple attempts to ally with the Entente powers in the First World War was a desire to bolster its international position in a manner that shows the ‘nationalism of internationalism’ at play early on. Meanwhile, Aiqun Hu and Patrick Manning have pointed out how policy-makers across the world sought to ‘enhance the image and status of the nation in the international world’ through adopting progressive social policy. That said, even in its eagerness to enhance its international position, China was not a passive agent. Margherita Zanasi has shown that, in spite of the colonial overtones of the League's Program of Technical Cooperation with underdeveloped nations, the collaboration between the National Economic Council and the League's technical experts took place on terms agreeable to China. Advice was only taken when it aligned with the regime's corporatist nation-building project. See Xu, Guoqi, China and the great war: China's pursuit of new national identity and internationalization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 63Google Scholar;

Hu, Aiqun and Manning, Patrick, ‘The global social insurance movement since the 1880s’, Journal of Global History, 5, 1, 2010, p. 128CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Zanasi, ‘Exporting development’. On the merits of studying transnational institutions, see

Iriye, Akira, ‘Internationalizing international history’, in Thomas Bender, ed., Rethinking American history in a global age, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002, pp. 4762CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10 Rodgers, Atlantic crossings. See also the special issue on ‘Relief in the aftermath of war’ in the Journal of Contemporary History, 43, 3, 2008.

11 See Borgwardt, Elizabeth, A New Deal for the world: America's vision for human rights, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 One notable exception is the recent work of Aiqun Hu, who thoroughly documents the development of social insurance in China from the early 1920s to the present. Her work demonstrates the international influence on China's schemes, though she focuses more on the specifics of policy than the politics of exchange. Jeremy Seekings, meanwhile, has written on social welfare debates that took place in the Global South. See Aiquan Hu, ‘Social insurance in twentieth-century China: a global historical perspective’, PhD thesis, Northeastern University, 2007, esp. chs. 2 and 3; Jeremy Seekings, ‘The ILO and welfare reform in South America, Latin America, and the Caribbean, 1919–1950’, in Van Daele et al., ILO histories, pp. 146–72.

13 Dikötter, Age of openness, pp. 3, 30Google Scholar.

14 Greene, Katrine R. C., ‘UNRRA's record in China’, Far Eastern Survey, 20, 10, 1951, p. 100CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15 Ma, Tehyun, ‘A Chinese Beveridge Plan: the discourse of social security and the post-war reconstruction of China’, European Journal of East Asian Studies, 11, 2, 2012, pp. 329349CrossRefGoogle Scholar;

Hu and Manning, ‘Global social insurance movement’, p. 141Google Scholar.

16 Gransow, Bettina, ‘The social sciences in China’, in Roy Porter, Theodore Porter, and Dorothy Ross, eds., The Cambridge history of science: the modern social sciences, vol. 7, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2003, p. 500Google Scholar.

17 Chiang, Social engineering, pp. 5Google Scholar, 223–9;

Wong, Linda, Marginalization and social welfare, New York: Taylor & Francis, 1998, pp. 3334Google Scholar;

Hangsheng, Zheng and Yingsheng, Li, A history of Chinese sociology, Beijing: China Renmin University, 2003, p. 108Google Scholar.

18 Chiang, Social engineering, p. 9Google Scholar.

Lam, Tong, A passion for facts: social surveys and the construction of the Chinese nation state, 1900–1949, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2011, p. 151Google Scholar.

19 Gransow, ‘Social sciences’, p. 499Google Scholar.

20 Lam, Passion, p. 3Google Scholar.

21 Ibid., passim. See also Scott, James C., Seeing like a state: how certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998Google Scholar.

22 According to Hu, ‘Social insurance’, p. 175Google Scholar, Ma Chaojun, a labour leader on the GMD right, had openly declared in 1927 that the motive for drafting a labour code was not just to fulfil the Three Principles but also to ‘uproot the Communist influence on labor movements’

23 On the regime's curtailment of strikes and control of labour in the 1920s and 1930s, see Perry, Elizabeth J., Shanghai on strike: the politics of Chinese labor, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993Google Scholar;

Coble, Parks M., The Shanghai capitalists and the Nationalist government, 1927–1937, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar. On the 1927 Labor Code draft, see

Hu, ‘Social insurance’, p. 176Google Scholar;

Taipu, Shi, ‘Wo guo ying ruhe shixing laogong baoxian? (How should our country implement labour insurance)?’, Shehui jianshe (Social Construction), 1, 3, 1945, p. 27Google Scholar.

24 Guomin zhengfu caizheng bu zhu hu diaocha huojia chu (Ministry of Finance, Shanghai Pricing Bureau), Shehui baoxian (Social insurance), Shanghai: Guomin zhengfu caizheng bu zhu hu diaocha huojia chu, 1928, pp. 1–2.

25 Deguo laodong zhenyi tiaoting fa zhi yanjiu (A study of German labour dispute and mediation law), Shanghai, 1927; Su'e xin laodongfa (Soviet Russia's new labour laws), Shanghai, 1928; Riben jiankang baoxian faling (Japanese health insurance laws and regulations), Shanghai, 1927; Geguo laogong yundong gaiguan (A survey of labour movements in other countries), Shanghai, 1928.

26 Sheng Jun, ‘Laogong wenti congshu xu (Introduction to the labour problems series)’, Shehui baoxian (Social insurance), Shanghai: Guomin zhengfu caizheng bu zhu hu diaocha huojia chu, 1928, p. 3.

27 On growing public discussions of labour welfare after the First World War, see Donghui, Rao, ‘Minguo Beijing zhengfu de laodong lifa chutan (A preliminary exploration of labour legislation under the republican Beijing government)’, Jindaishi yanjiu (Modern Chinese History Studies), 1, 1998, pp. 147148Google Scholar.

28 See, for example, ‘World economic news: French parliament ratified three important items: (1) budget; (2) tax cuts; (2) social insurance’, Yinghang zhoubao (Bankers’ Weekly), 14, 22, 1930; ‘Lun shehui baoxian ce: laodong baoxiang zhengce (A discussion of social insurance policies: labour insurance measures’, Yinye yuebao (Native Bankers Monthly), 10, 5, 1930; ‘Guoji yaowen: luoshifu xuanbu jiang li shehui baoxian zhi (Important international news: Roosevelt announces the establishment of a social insurance system’, Yinghang zhoubao (Bankers’ Weekly), 18, 23, 1934. Bankers Weekly was sponsored by the powerful Shanghai Bankers’ Association, while the Native Bankers Monthly was the publication of the city's Native Bankers Guild.

29 Ming, Yan, Zhongguo shehuixue shi: yi men xueke yu yige shidai (A history of Chinese sociology: a discipline and an era), Beijing: Qinghua University Press, 2010, p. 261Google Scholar.

30 Chinese Ministry of Information (CMI), China handbook, 1937–1945, New York: Macmillan, 1947, p. 665.

31 Zhenggang, Gu, ‘Di yi ci quanguo shehui xingzheng huiyi (weiyuanzhang xunci) (The director's speech at the first National Social Administration Conference)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun (Bulletin of Social Work), 1, 1, 1944, p. 2Google Scholar.

32 Yan, Zhongguo shehuixue shi, p. 261Google Scholar, argues that part of the significance of institutions such as the Social Security Administration was to demonstrate to Chinese planners how the administrative power of the state could be put to use to advance welfare projects.

33 Israel, John, Lianda: a Chinese university in war and revolution, Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1998, p. 185Google Scholar;

Chaoqing, Xuan and Bohui, Wang, ‘Yi jiu si ling niandai Zhongguo shehui jianshe sixiang de xingcheng (The formation of Chinese social construction thought in the 1940s)’, Zhongguo shehuixue (Chinese Sociology), 6, 2009, p. 132Google Scholar;

Zheng and Li, History of Chinese sociology, pp. 108–110Google Scholar, 131–2;

Wanyi, Lin, Dangdai shehui gongzuo: lilun yu fangfa (Modern social work: theory and method), Taipei: Wunan, 2006, p. 132Google Scholar.

Yan, Zhongguo shehuixue shi, pp. 261–262Google Scholar.

34 Zheng and Li, History of Chinese sociology, p. 132Google Scholar.

35 Chiang, Social engineering, p. 55Google Scholar;

Israel, Lianda, p. 198Google Scholar; Chen Ta (pinyin Chen Da), Towards a modern census in China, Kunming: 1943.

36 Chiang, Social engineering, pp. 52–53Google Scholar.

37 Dehong, Huang, Huang Dehong zi xuan ji (Self-selected works of Huang Dehong), Guangzhou: Guangdong renmin chuban she, 2007, p. 3Google Scholar.

38 Guoming, Liu and Jinming, Huang, eds., Zhongguo Guomindang bainian renwu quanshu (A comprehensive volume on a hundred years of Guomindang figures), Beijing: Tuanjie chubanshe, 2005, p. 390Google Scholar.

39 Borgwardt, New Deal, p. 4Google Scholar.

40 Rana Mitter, ‘Imperialism, transnationalism, and the reconstruction of post-war China: UNRRA in China, 1944–7’, Past & Present, Supplement 8, 2013, pp. 5169Google Scholar. See also

Wei, C. X. George, Sino-American economic relations, 1944–1949, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997Google Scholar, ch. 3.

41 Ray, Franklin, UNRRA in China: a case study in the interplay of interests in a program of international aid to an undeveloped country, New York: Institute of Pacific Relations, 1947, p. 3Google Scholar.

42 Rodgers, Gerry et al., The International Labour Organization and the quest for social justice, 1919–2009, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 2009Google Scholar, pp. 2, 6, 8.

43 Chang, Guoji hezuo zai Zhongguo, pp. 282–283Google Scholar.

44 Hu, ‘Social insurance’, p. 176Google Scholar.

45 Daele, Jasmien Van, ‘Writing ILO histories: a state of the art’, in Van Daele et al., ILO histories, p. 22Google Scholar.

46 Goethem, Geert van, ‘Phelan's war: the International Labour Organization in limbo, 1941–1948’, in Van Daele et al., ILO histories, p. 318Google Scholar.

47 Ibid., p. 332.

48 Simpson, Smith, ‘International Labour Conference: twenty-sixth session’, American Journal of International Law 38, 4, 1944, p. 558CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

49 Liu and Huang, Zhongguo Guomindang bainian renwu quanshu, p. 2202Google Scholar.

50 International Labour Office, International Labour Conference, twenty-sixth session, Philadelphia, 1944: record of proceedings, Montreal: International Labour Office, 1944, p. 45.

51 Ibid., p. 93.

52 Ibid., p.165; Shehui jianshe, 1, 4, 1944, pp. 15–42.

53 Zheng, History of Chinese sociology, pp. 109–110Google Scholar.

54 Dehong, Huang, ‘Tuixing shehui baoxian ying zhuyi de jige wenti (A few issues to consider when advancing social insurance)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 8, 1944, p. 14Google Scholar.

55 Ji Zechang ‘Lun shehui anquan jihua (A discussion of social security plans)’, Zhongyang ribao (Central Daily News), 7 May 1944.

56 Huang, ‘Tuixing shehui baoxian ying zhuyi de ji ge wenti’, p. 14Google Scholar.

57 Bei-fo-li-zhi shehui baoxian ji qi youguan shiye (Beveridge's social insurance and related enterprises), [place unknown]: Yingguo zhu hua dashiguan xinwen chu, 1944.

58 Jian, Wu, ‘Woguo zhanhou shehui anquan chubu sheshi shishi jihua juyao (A summary of our country's social security implementation plan)’, Shehui jianshe, 1, 4 1944, p. 4Google Scholar;

Zongmeng, Bian, ‘Zhongguo de “Bei-fo-li-zhi” jihua ruhe (How is China's “Beveridge” plan?)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 6, 1944, pp. 47Google Scholar.

59 Alden, Percy, ‘Guanyu Bei-fo-li-zhi baogao shu (Regarding the Beveridge report)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 7, 1944, pp. 2934Google Scholar.

60 Changling, Xu, ‘Zhanshi ge guo shehui baoxian shuyao (Important descriptions of wartime social insurance of other nations)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 8, 1944, p. 10Google Scholar.

61 Kejing, Shi and Juying, Zhen, ‘Lun shehui baoxian yu woguo shishi de wenti (A discussion of social insurance and the problems of implementation in our country’, Zhongyang ribao, 23 July 1946Google Scholar;

Shizhong, Xu, ‘Lun xianfa shehui anquan jie (A discussion on the social security section in the constitution)’, Zhongyang ribao, 9 December 1946Google Scholar.

62 Shanglin, Fu, ‘Geguo shehui anquan zhengce shishi gaikuang (An overview of the implementation of social insurance policies in different countries’, Zhongguo shehuixue xun (Bulletin of Chinese Sociology), 2, 1947, pp. 14Google Scholar.

63 ‘China's Beveridge Plan’, Banker's Magazine, 156, 1943, p. 159.

64 Xu, ‘Zhanshi ge guo shehui baoxian shuyao’, p. 8Google Scholar;

Zhi'ang, Jiang, ‘Xiandai shehui anquan jihua zhi tezhi (The unique quality of modern social security plans)’, Shehui jianshe, 1, 2, 1945, p. 63Google Scholar;

Li Guoqing ‘Nan feizhou lianmeng zhengfu zhi shehui anquan jihua (The social security plan of the Union of South Africa)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 4, 3, 1947, pp. 2427Google Scholar.

65 The Ministry of Social Affairs began these translations in 1941. See Hu, ‘Social insurance’, pp. 181–182Google Scholar.

Huang Dehong, ‘Yingguo gongye shanghai baoxian jihua gangyao (An outline of the British industrial injury insurance scheme)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 2, 11, 1945Google Scholar;

Huang Dehong, ‘Yingguo zhengfu shehui baoxian jihua tigang (An outline of the British government's social insurance plan)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 2, 12, 1945Google Scholar;

Huang Dehong, ‘Moxige shehui baoxian fa'an zhi shishi (The implementation of the Mexican social insurance bill)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 4, 1, 1947Google Scholar

Huang Dehong, ‘Meiguo shehui anquan fa jianshu (A summary of American social security law)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 2, 8, 1945Google Scholar;

Huang Dehong, ‘Meiguo shiye baoxian gaikuang (The state of American's unemployment insurance)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 3, 1, 1946Google Scholar;

Huang Dehong, ‘Meiguo yanglao ji yizu baoxian shuyao (A sketch of American old age and dependents’ insurance)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 3, 12, 1946Google Scholar.

66 ‘Shehui anquan zhidu (The social security system)’, Zhongyang ribao, 22 March 1945.

67 Academia Historica Archives, Waijiao bu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 020000034452A; Li Guoqing, ‘Meizhou ge guo shehui baoxian jihua gaikuang (Social insurance plans in the various countries of the Americas)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 4, 4, 1947Google Scholar;

Li Guoqing, ‘Meizhou hezhongguo shehui baoxian gaishu (A survey of social insurance in the Americas)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 4, 5, 1947Google Scholar;

Li Guoqing, ‘Meizhou geguo shehui baoxian jihua gaikuang (A sketch of the social insurance plans of countries in the Americas)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 4, 6, 1947Google Scholar.

68 Zhi'ang, Jiang, ‘Xiandai shehui anquan jihua zhi tezhi (The unique quality of modern social security plans)’, Shehui jianshe, 1, 2, 1945, p. 63Google Scholar;

Lisong, Chen, ‘Ying Mei liangguo shehui anquan jihua de bijiao (Comparison between the British and American social security plans)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 2, 8, 1945, pp. 3342Google Scholar; Ronald Davison, trans. Lin Zhihe, ‘Meiguo “Bei-fo-li-zhi” jihua (America's “Beveridge” plan)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 8, 1944, pp. 33–7.

69 CMI, China handbook, p. 157Google Scholar.

70 Ji, ‘Shehui anquan jihua’.

71 Shi and Zhen, ‘Lun shehui baoxian yu woguo shishi de wenti’.

72 Chen, Ta, ‘The foundations of a sound social policy for China’, Social Forces, 26, 2, 1947, p. 140CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

73 Shi and Zhen, ‘Lun shehui baoxian yu woguo shishi de wenti’.

74 Liangtong, Lin, ‘Shehui xingzheng yu shehui baoxian (Social administration and social insurance)’, Zhongyang ribao, 8 October 1942Google Scholar.

75 Scott, Seeing, p. 24Google Scholar.

76 Chen, ‘Foundations’, p. 140Google Scholar.

77 Lin, ‘Shehui xingzheng yu shehui baoxian’.

78 Wu, ‘Woguo zhanhou shehui anquan chubu shishi jihua juyao’, p. 4Google Scholar.

79 Dehong, Huang, ‘Tuixing shehui baoxian ying zhuyi de jige wenti (A few issues to consider when advancing social insurance)’, Shehui gongzuo tongxun, 1, 8, 1944, p. 15Google Scholar.

80 CMI, China handbook, p. 52Google Scholar.

81 Tang, Kwong-Leung and Ngan, Raymond Man-hung, ‘China: social security in the context of rapid economic growth’, in James Midgley and Kwong-Leung Tang, eds., Social security, the economy and development, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p. 142Google Scholar;

Gransow, ‘Social sciences’, p. 508Google Scholar;

Perry, ‘From native place to workplace’, in Xiaobo Lü and Elizabeth Perry, eds., Danwei: the changing Chinese workplace in historical and comparative perspectives, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, p. 45Google Scholar.

82 Chiang, Social engineering, p. 146Google Scholar.

83 Sheng Jun, ‘Laogong wenti congshu xu (Introduction to the labour problems series)’, Shehui baoxian (Social insurance), Shanghai: Guomin zhengfu caizheng bu zhu hu diaocha huojia chu, 1928, p. 2Google Scholar.

84 Howard, Workers, p. 147Google Scholar. Hu suggests that a handful of municipal governments and trade congresses held the same view, and in 1930–1 they lobbied the Ministry of Internal Affairs to do something about it. In 1948 a post-war commentator also remarked how the communist threat could effectively be neutered with ‘social security’ after he read the British Embassy's Information Office's Chinese language pamphlet The British Social Security System (Yinguo shehui an'quan zhidu). See

Hu, ‘Social insurance’, pp. 171–172Google Scholar;

Fu, Gang, ‘Shehuibu shi gan shenme de? Du “Yinguo shehui anquan zhidu” yihou (What is the purpose of the Ministry of Social Affairs? After reading the “British Social Security System” ’, Xin zhengzhijia (New Statesman), 1, 18, 1949, pp. 34Google Scholar.

85 Frazier, Making, pp. 62–63Google Scholar;

Elizabeth Perry, Shanghai on strike: the politics of Chinese labor, Stanford, CA: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar, ch. 5.

86 Israel, Lianda, pp. 345–364Google Scholar.

87 Chang, Guoji hezuo zai Zhongguo, p. 272Google Scholar.

88 Ibid.

89 Cited in ibid., p. 287.

90 Cited in ibid.

91 Osterhammel, Jürgen, ‘ “Technical co-operation” between the League of Nations and China’, Modern Asian Studies, 13, 1974, p. 665Google Scholar.

92 Chang, Guoji hezuo zai Zhongguo, pp. 292–297Google Scholar.

93 China’, T. K. Djang ‘Factory inspection in, International Labour Review, 50, 1944, pp. 284285Google Scholar, 289.

94 CMI, China handbook, pp. 127–152Google Scholar. The Factory Law contained a number of regulations that applied to mechanized factories with thirty or more workers. These included restrictions on the use of child and female labour, regulation of the hours of labour, and welfare provisions such as maternity leave, worker housing, and compensation for injury, sickness, and death. See

Howard, Workers, p. 147Google Scholar;

Frazier, Making, p. 62Google Scholar.

95 Hsia, C. L., ‘A New Deal for all nations’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 222, 1942, p. 142CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

96 Ibid., p. 129.

97 Bian, ‘Zhongguo de “Bei-fo-li-zhi” jihua ruhe’, p. 5Google Scholar.

98 International Labour Office, International Labour Conference, twenty-sixth session, Philadelphia, 1944, record of proceedings, p. 93.

99 Ibid., p. 127.

100 Xinzhe, Yan, ‘Wei shenme xianfa li duiyu shehui anquan ying you jiben de guiding? (Why should the constitution have a basic provision for social security?)’, Zhongyang ribao, 27 November 1946Google Scholar.

101 China had been trying to secure a permanent seat on the ILO since 1935. When the opening came up in 1940, Chinese diplomats scurried to put a plan together with the Ministries of Social Affairs and Economic Affairs. The importance that they invested in the seat owed much to their sense that the ILO enjoyed US support in a way that the League did not. Their plan involved lobbying members, providing the ILO with missing statistics, and, if required, threatening to resign from the ILO. The plan was approved by Chiang. Chang, Guoji hezuo zai Zhongguo, pp. 280–282Google Scholar.

102 Ho, Yao-tsu, ‘Chinese economic policy in wartime’, International Labour Review, 47, 5, 1943, p. 557Google Scholar.

103 Ibid., p. 537.

104 Djang, T. K., ‘Social policy in China’, International Labour Review, 52, 1945, pp. 166Google Scholar, 169.

105 See for example ‘The new China’, New York Times, 14 September, 1945; ‘Social security plan is drafted for China’, New York Times, 17 July 1946; ‘China's plans for social security’, Straits Times, 16 August 1946.

106 Mitter, ‘Imperialism’, p. 64Google Scholar.

107 Sun Fo, China looks forward (with an introduction by Lin Yutang), New York: John Day, 1944, p. 41Google Scholar.

108 Ibid., p. 54.

109 Ibid.

110 Ibid., p. xiii.

111 Ibid.

112 Ibid., p. xv.

113 ‘Longines chronoscope with Tingfu F. Tsiang’, US National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, ARC 96033, LI LW-LW-486.