We discuss the results of an investigation of the chemical composition of the ice cover on the high-mountain lake Morskie Oko in the Tatra Mountains, Carpathians, Poland. In the years 2007–13, the ice cover was characterized by an average duration of 6 months, a thickness range of 0.40–1.14 m, and a multilayered structure with water or slush inclusion. In water from the melted ice cover, chloride (max. 69%) and sulphate (max. 51%) anions and ammonium (max. 66%) and calcium (max. 78%) cations predominated. Different concentrations of ions (F−, Cl−, NO3
2−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4
+) in the upper, middle and bottom layers of ice were observed, along with long-term variability and spatial diversification within the ice layer over the lake. Snowpack lying on the ice and the water body under the ice were also investigated, and the influence on the ice cover of certain ions in elevated concentrations was observed (e.g. Cl− in the upper ice cover and the snowpack, and Ca2+ in the bottom ice cover and water body).