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Six flow modes are distinguished in the flow-focusing experiments of a liquid jet forced by a high-speed air stream. The domains of the modes are identified on the parameter space of the liquid flow rate Ql and the gas pressure drop Δpg. The disturbance wavelength λ and breakup length L of the jet are also measured. A theoretical model considering axisymmetric disturbances is proposed, and a basic velocity profile of hyperbolic-tangent function is utilized. The linear temporal and spatio-temporal instability analyses are carried out using the Chebyshev collocation method. The effects of the flow parameters and the velocity profile on the flow instability are discussed. The temporal instability analysis demonstrates that the interfacial shear causes the instability of short waves and retards the instability of long waves. Moreover, the spatio-temporal instability analysis gives the transition boundary between the absolute and convective instability (AI/CI). The most unstable wavelength predicted by the temporal instability analysis and the AI/CI boundary predicted by the spatio-temporal instability analysis are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Recently, clustering of inertial particles in turbulence has been thoroughly analysed for statistically homogeneous isotropic flows. Phenomenologically, spatial homogeneity of particle configurations is broken by the advection of a range of eddies determined by the Stokes relaxation time of the particles. This in turn results in a multi-scale distribution of local particle concentration and voids. Much less is known concerning anisotropic flows. Here, by addressing direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a statistically steady particle-laden homogeneous shear flow, we provide evidence that the mean shear preferentially orients particle patterns. By imprinting anisotropy on large-scale velocity fluctuations, the shear indirectly affects the geometry of the clusters. Quantitative evaluation is provided by a purposely designed tool, the angular distribution function (ADF) of particle pairs, which allows to address the anisotropy content of particle aggregates on a scale-by-scale basis. The data provide evidence that, depending on the Stokes relaxation time of the particles, anisotropic clustering may occur even in the range of scales in which the carrier phase velocity field is already recovering isotropy. The strength of the singularity in the anisotropic component of the ADF quantifies the level of fine-scale anisotropy, which may even reach values of more than 30% direction-dependent variation in the probability to find two closeby particles at viscous-scale separation.
The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the prevailing method for basis generation in the model reduction of fluids. A serious limitation of this method, however, is that it is empirical. In other words, this basis accurately represents the flow data used to generate it, but may not be accurate when applied ‘off-design’. Thus, the reduced-order model may lose accuracy for flow parameters (e.g. Reynolds number, initial or boundary conditions and forcing parameters) different from those used to generate the POD basis and generally does. This paper investigates the use of sensitivity analysis in the basis selection step to partially address this limitation. We examine two strategies that use the sensitivity of the POD modes with respect to the problem parameters. Numerical experiments performed on the flow past a square cylinder over a range of Reynolds numbers demonstrate the effectiveness of these strategies. The newly derived bases allow for a more accurate representation of the flows when exploring the parameter space. Expanding the POD basis built at one state with its sensitivity leads to low-dimensional dynamical systems having attractors that approximate fairly well the attractor of the full-order Navier–Stokes equations for large parameter changes.
The strongly nonlinear long-wave model for large amplitude internal waves in a two-layer system is regularized to eliminate shear instability due to the wave-induced velocity jump across the interface. The model is written in terms of the horizontal velocities evaluated at the top and bottom boundaries instead of the depth-averaged velocities, and it is shown through local stability analysis that internal solitary waves are locally stable to perturbations of arbitrary wavelengths if the wave amplitudes are smaller than a critical value. For a wide range of depth and density ratios pertinent to oceanic conditions, the critical wave amplitude is close to the maximum wave amplitude and the regularized model is therefore expected to be applicable to the strongly nonlinear regime. The regularized model is solved numerically using a finite-difference method and its numerical solutions support the results of our linear stability analysis. It is also shown that the solitary wave solution of the regularized model, found numerically using a time-dependent numerical model, is close to the solitary wave solution of the original model, confirming that the two models are asymptotically equivalent.
A model to explain the low-frequency unsteadiness found in shock-induced separation is proposed for cases in which the flow is reattaching downstream. It is based on the properties of fluid entrainment in the mixing layer generated downstream of the separation shock whose low-frequency motions are related to successive contractions and dilatations of the separated bubble. The main aerodynamic parameters on which the process depends are presented. This model is consistent with experimental observations obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a Mach 2.3 oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction, as well as with several different configurations reported in the literature for Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 5.
We investigate the effects of an insulating lid of variable spatial extent on convection in the stagnant-lid regime under thermally steady-state conditions. Using a combination of laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and scaling analyses we characterize the qualitative structure and quantitative heat transfer properties of flows in terms of the fractional extent L of an insulating lid applied at the cold boundary, the thermal resistance of the lid, the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity Λ and the effective Rayleigh number Rae for the composite system. A partial insulating lid has two main effects: (i) To increase the mean interior temperature and reduce the average viscosity of the system, which enhances fluid motions, and (ii) to impart a lateral asymmetry to the thermal structure of the cold boundary that leads, in turn, to lateral temperature gradients that drive an overturning flow. Consequently, whereas flow in the uninsulated stagnant-lid regime is in the form of ‘small-scale’ rising and sinking thermals, there is an additional ‘large-scale’ circulation in the presence of partial insulation. The structure, wavelength and heat transfer properties of this large-scale stirring depends on L, Λ and Rae. For given Rae – Λ conditions we find optimal values of L at which there occur well-defined maxima in the rate of overturn, the local heat flux carried into the uninsulated part of the cold boundary and in the global average heat flux Nu carried across the system. Whereas both the rate of overturning and local heat flux are associated with the largest lateral temperature gradients, the optimal basal heat flux depends also on a tradeoff with the fractional surface area of the lid. Remarkably, maximal values of the global heat flux can significantly exceed that of the uninsulated stagnant-lid case. The occurrence of such maxima is insensitive to the mechanical boundary conditions applied and is not strongly influenced by lid shape. However, the magnitude and location of optimal heat fluxes depends in a complicated way on the lid surface area and shape, as well as the structure of the hot and cold boundary layers and the wavelength of the large-scale flow.
Linear stability of the non-parallel Batchelor vortex is studied using global modes. This family of swirling wakes and jets has been extensively studied under the parallel-flow approximation, and in this paper we extend to more realistic non-parallel base flows. Our base flow is obtained as an exact steady solution of the Navier–Stokes equations by direct numerical simulation (with imposed axisymmetry to damp all instabilities). Global stability modes are computed by numerical simulation of the linearized equations, using the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method, and we discuss fully the numerical and convergence issues encountered. Emphasis is placed on exploring the general structure of the global spectrum, and in particular the correspondence between global modes and local absolute modes which is anticipated by weakly non-parallel asymptotic theory. We believe that our computed global modes for a weakly non-parallel vortex are the first to display this correspondence with local absolute modes. Superpositions of global modes are also studied, allowing an investigation of the amplifier dynamics of this unstable flow. For an illustrative case we find global non-modal transient growth via a convective mechanism. Generally amplifier dynamics, via convective growth, are prevalent over short time intervals, and resonator dynamics, via global mode growth, become prevalent at later times.
A theoretical model for long vorticity waves propagating on a background shear flow is developed. The basic flow is assumed to be confined between two critical layers, respectively, located near the lower and upper rigid boundaries. In these critical layers even small disturbances will break, and eventually a thin zone of mixed fluid will appear. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation for the amplitude of a wave-like disturbance in this configuration, based on the assumption that the critical layers are replaced by thin recirculation zones attached to the lower and upper rigid boundaries, where the flow is very weak. The dispersive and time-evolution terms in this equation are typical for Korteweg–de Vries theory, but the nonlinear term is more complicated. It comprises nonlinearity associated with the shear across the waveguide, and the nonlinearity due to the flow over the recirculation zones. The coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term may change sign, depending on the presence or otherwise of recirculation zones at the upper or lower boundary of the waveguide. We then seek steady travelling wave solutions, and show that there are no such steady solutions if the waveguide contains no density stratification. However, steady solutions including solitary waves and bores can exist if the fluid between the critical layers is weakly density stratified.
Drag and lift forces acting on a spherical gas bubble in a homogeneous linear shear flow were numerically investigated by means of a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) based on a marker and cell (MAC) method. The effects of fluid shear rate and particle Reynolds number on drag and lift forces acting on a spherical gas bubble were compared with those on a spherical inviscid bubble. The results show that the drag force acting on a spherical air bubble in a linear shear flow increases with fluid shear rate of ambient flow. The behaviour of the lift force on a spherical air bubble is quite similar to that on a spherical inviscid bubble, but the effects of fluid shear rate on the lift force acting on an air bubble in the linear shear flow become bigger than that acting on an inviscid bubble in the particle Reynolds number region of 1≤Rep≤300. The lift coefficient on a spherical gas bubble approaches the lift coefficient on a spherical water droplet in the linear shear air-flow with increase in the internal gas viscosity.
The breakup of viscous liquid jets that contain surfactant, that is potentially above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is considered here within the long-wave approximation. The soluble surfactant is assumed to be present in three phases: as an interfacial species, bulk monomers and micelles. A model is developed for the interaction between these phases and the surface tension which obeys a nonlinear equation of state. The effects of the equation of state and the reservoir of surfactant created by micelles on breakup are investigated. The long-wave approximation naturally leads to a system of coupled one-dimensional equations that are solved numerically. It is demonstrated that jet breakup and satellite formation are critically affected by the presence of high surfactant concentrations above the CMC. This manifests itself by the formation of unusually large satellites. We present extensive numerical evidence that the mechanism for this phenomenon centres on the interplay between Marangoni stresses and the nonlinear surfactant equation of state; the latter exhibits a plateau at high interfacial concentrations.
We consider the mechanical energy budget for horizontal Boussinesq convection and show that there are two distinct energy pathways connecting the mechanical energy (i.e. kinetic, available potential and background potential energies) to the internal energy reservoir and the external energy source. To obtain bounds on the magnitudes of the energy transfer rates around each cycle, we first show that the volume-averaged dissipation rate of buoyancy variance χ ≡ κ 〈|∇b|2〉, where b is the buoyancy, is bounded from above by 4.57h−1κ2/3ν−1/3b7/3max. Here h is the depth of the container, κ the molecular diffusion, ν the kinematic viscosity and bmax the maximum buoyancy difference that exists on the surface. The bound on χ is used to estimate the generation rate of available potential energy Ea and the rate at which Ea is irreversibly converted to background potential energy via diapycnal fluxes, both of which are shown to vanish at least as fast as κ1/3 in the limit κ → 0 at fixed Prandtl number Pr = ν/κ. As a thought experiment, consider a hypothetical ocean insulated at all boundaries except at the upper surface, where the buoyancy is prescribed. The bounds on the energy transfer rates in the mechanical energy budget imply that buoyancy forcing alone is insufficient by at least three orders of magnitude to maintain observed oceanic dissipation rates and that additional energy sources such as winds, tides and perhaps bioturbation are necessary to sustain observed levels of turbulent dissipation in the world's oceans.
A high-order accurate shock- and interface-capturing scheme is used to simulate the collapse of a gas bubble in water. In order to better understand the damage caused by collapsing bubbles, the dynamics of the shock-induced and Rayleigh collapse of a bubble near a planar rigid surface and in a free field are analysed. Collapse times, bubble displacements, interfacial velocities and surface pressures are quantified as a function of the pressure ratio driving the collapse and of the initial bubble stand-off distance from the wall; these quantities are compared to the available theory and experiments and show good agreement with the data for both the bubble dynamics and the propagation of the shock emitted upon the collapse. Non-spherical collapse involves the formation of a re-entrant jet directed towards the wall or in the direction of propagation of the incoming shock. In shock-induced collapse, very high jet velocities can be achieved, and the finite time for shock propagation through the bubble may be non-negligible compared to the collapse time for the pressure ratios of interest. Several types of shock waves are generated during the collapse, including precursor and water-hammer shocks that arise from the re-entrant jet formation and its impact upon the distal side of the bubble, respectively. The water-hammer shock can generate very high pressures on the wall, far exceeding those from the incident shock. The potential damage to the neighbouring surface is quantified by measuring the wall pressure. The range of stand-off distances and the surface area for which amplification of the incident shock due to bubble collapse occurs is determined.
This is an experimental and theoretical study of a laminar separation bubble and the associated linear stability mechanisms. Experiments were performed over a flat plate kept in a wind tunnel, with an imposed pressure gradient typical of an aerofoil that would involve a laminar separation bubble. The separation bubble was characterized by measurement of surface-pressure distribution and streamwise velocity using hot-wire anemometry. Single component hot-wire anemometry was also used for a detailed study of the transition dynamics. It was found that the so-called dead-air region in the front portion of the bubble corresponded to a region of small disturbance amplitudes, with the amplitude reaching a maximum value close to the reattachment point. An exponential growth rate of the disturbance was seen in the region upstream of the mean maximum height of the bubble, and this was indicative of a linear instability mechanism at work. An infinitesimal disturbance was impulsively introduced into the boundary layer upstream of separation location, and the wave packet was tracked (in an ensemble-averaged sense) while it was getting advected downstream. The disturbance was found to be convective in nature. Linear stability analyses (both the Orr–Sommerfeld and Rayleigh calculations) were performed for mean velocity profiles, starting from an attached adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer all the way up to the front portion of the separation-bubble region (i.e. up to the end of the dead-air region in which linear evolution of the disturbance could be expected). The conclusion from the present work is that the primary instability mechanism in a separation bubble is inflectional in nature, and its origin can be traced back to upstream of the separation location. In other words, the inviscid inflectional instability of the separated shear layer should be logically seen as an extension of the instability of the upstream attached adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer. This modifies the traditional view that pegs the origin of the instability in a separation bubble to the detached shear layer outside the bubble, with its associated Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism. We contend that only when the separated shear layer has moved considerably away from the wall (and this happens near the maximum-height location of the mean bubble), a description by the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability paradigm, with its associated scaling principles, could become relevant. We also propose a new scaling for the most amplified frequency for a wall-bounded shear layer in terms of the inflection-point height and the vorticity thickness and show it to be universal.
An imposed normal temperature gradient on a sloping surface in a viscous stratified fluid can generate a slow steady flow along a thin ‘buoyancy layer’ against that surface, and in a contained fluid the associated mass flux leads to a broader-scale ‘outer flow’. Previous analysis for small values of the Wunsch–Phillips parameter R is extended to the nonlinear case in a contained fluid, when the imposed temperature gradient is comparable with the background temperature gradient. As for the linear case, a compatibility condition relates the buoyancy-layer mass flux along each sloping boundary to the outer-flow temperature gradient. This condition allows the leading-order flow to be determined throughout the container for a variety of configurations.
A model is developed to investigate the process which leads to the formation of sand waves in shallow tidal seas characterized by a heterogeneous sea bed composition. The main goal of the analysis is the evaluation of the effects that a graded sediment has on the formation of the bottom forms and the investigation of the sorting process induced by the growth of the bottom forms. The analysis is based on the study of the stability of the flat bed configuration, i.e. small amplitude perturbations are added to the flat bottom and a linear analysis of their time development is made. For an oscillatory tidal current dominated by one tidal constituent, the results show that the graded sediment can stabilize or destabilize the flat bottom configuration with respect to the uniform sediment case, depending on the standard deviation σ* of the grain size distribution and on the ratio between the horizontal tidal excursion and the water depth. For moderate values of , i.e. values just larger than the critical value for which the sediment is moved and sand waves appear, the presence of a sand mixture stabilizes the flat bed. On the other hand, for large values of , the mixture has a destabilizing effect. In both cases the effect that a sand mixture has on the stability of the flat bed configuration is relatively small. Moreover, for moderate values of , the fine fraction of the mixture tends to pile up at the crests of the bottom forms while the coarse fraction moves towards the troughs. For large values of , the grain size distribution depends on the value of σ*. The results are physically interpreted and provide a possible explanation of the apparently conflicting field observations of the grain size distribution along the sand wave profile, carried out in the North Sea.
This paper reports an experimental investigation of pressure-driven flow through models of porous media. Each model porous medium is a square array of circular acrylic rods oriented across the flow in a rectangular channel. The solid volume fraction φ of the arrays ranged from 0.01 to 0.49. Three boundary conditions were studied. In the first boundary condition, the model porous medium was installed on the lower wall of the channel only and was bounded by a free zone. In the second and third boundary conditions, porous media of equal and unequal φ were arranged on the lower and upper channel walls so that the two media touched (second boundary condition), and did not touch (third boundary condition). Using water as the working fluid, the Reynolds number was kept low so that inertia was not a factor. Particle image velocimetry was used to obtain detailed velocity measurements in the streamwise-transverse plane of the test section. The velocity data were used to study the effects of φ and the different boundary conditions on the flow through and over the porous medium, and at the interface. For the first boundary condition, it was observed that at φ = 0.22, flow inside the porous medium was essentially zero, and the slip velocity at the porous medium and free zone interface decayed with permeability. In the second and third boundary conditions, flow communication between the porous media was observed to be dependent on the combinations of φ used, and the trends of the slip velocities at the interface between the two porous media obtained for that boundary condition were indicative of complicated interfacial flow.
By tracking small particles in the bulk of an intensely turbulent laboratory flow, we study the effect of long-chain polymers on the Eulerian structure functions. We find that the structure functions are modified over a wide range of length scales even for very small polymer concentrations. Their behaviour can be captured by defining a length scale that depends on the solvent viscosity, the polymer relaxation time and the Weissenberg number. This result is not captured by current models. Additionally, the effects we observe depend strongly on the concentration. While the dissipation-range statistics change smoothly as a function of polymer concentration, we find that the inertial-range values of the structure functions are modified only when the concentration exceeds a threshold of approximately 5 parts per million (p.p.m.) by weight for the 18 × 106 atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) molecular weight polyacrylamide used in the experiment.
Stratification patterns are formed when a bidisperse mixture of large rough
grains and smaller more mobile particles is poured between parallel plates to
form a heap. At low flow rates discrete avalanches flow down the free surface
and are brought to rest by the propagation of shock waves. Experiments performed
in this paper show that the larger particles are segregated to the top of the
avalanche, where the velocity is greatest, and are transported to the flow
front. Here the particles are overrun but may rise to the free surface again by
size segregation to create a recirculating coarse-grained front. Once the front
is established composite images show that there is a steady regime in which any
additional large grains that reach the front are deposited. This flow is
therefore analogous to finger formation in geophysical mass flows, where the
larger less mobile particles are shouldered aside to spontaneously form static
lateral levees rather than being removed by basal deposition in two dimensions.
At the heart of all these phenomena is a dynamic feedback between the bulk flow
and the evolving particle-size distribution within the avalanche. A fully
coupled theory for such segregation–mobility feedback effects is beyond
the scope of this paper. However, it is shown how to derive a simplified
uncoupled travelling-wave solution for the avalanche motion and reconstruct the
bulk two-dimensional flow field using assumed velocity profiles through the
avalanche depth. This allows a simple hyperbolic segregation theory to be used
to construct exact solutions for the particle concentration and for the
recirculation within the bulk flow. Depending on the material composition and
the strength of the segregation and deposition, there are three types of
solution. The coarse-particle front grows in length if more large particles
arrive than can be deposited. If there are fewer large grains and if the
segregation is strong enough, a breaking size-segregation wave forms at a unique
position behind the front. It consists of two expansion fans, two shocks and a
central ‘eye’ of constant concentration that are arranged in a
‘lens-like’ structure. Coarse grains just behind the front are
recirculated, while those reaching the head are overrun and deposited. Upstream
of the wave, the size distribution resembles a small-particle
‘sandwich’ with a raft of rapidly flowing large particles on top
and a coarse deposited layer at the bottom, consistent with the experimental
observations made here. If the segregation is weak, the central eye degenerates,
and all the large particles are deposited without recirculation.
The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid generated by a sudden impulse near a wall with no-slip boundary condition is studied on the basis of the linearized Navier–Stokes equations. It turns out that the flow differs significantly from that for the perfect slip boundary condition, except far from the wall and at short times. At short time the flow is irrotational and can be described by a potential which varies with the square root of time. Correspondingly the pressure disturbance is quite large at short times. It shows an oscillation at later times if the impulse is directed parallel to the wall and decays monotonically for impulse perpendicular to the wall.