Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5cfd469876-2rqk5 Total loading time: 0.314 Render date: 2021-06-24T13:29:19.879Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Jettable fluid space and jetting characteristics of a microprint head

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 October 2012

Loke-Yuen Wong
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
Guan-Hui Lim
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117576, Republic of Singapore
Thiha Ye
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
F. B. Shanjeera Silva
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
Jing-Mei Zhuo
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
Rui-Qi Png
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
Soo-Jin Chua
Affiliation:
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117576, Republic of Singapore
Peter K. H. Ho
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542, Republic of Singapore
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The influence of fluid droplet properties on the droplet-on-demand jetting of a Newtonian model fluid (water–isopropanol–ethylene glycol ternary system) has been studied. The composition of the fluid was adjusted to investigate how the Ohnesorge number ( $\mathit{Oh}$ ) influences droplet formation (morphology and speed) by a microfabricated short-channel shear-mode piezoelectric transducer. The fluid space for satellite-free single droplet formation was indeed found to be bound by upper and lower $\mathit{Oh}$ limits, but these shift approximately linearly with the piezo pulse voltage amplitude ${V}_{o} $ , which has a stronger influence on jetting characteristics than pulse length. Therefore the jettable fluid space can be depicted on a ${V}_{o} {{\ndash}}\mathit{Oh}$ diagram. Satellite-free droplets of the model fluid can be jetted over a wide $\mathit{Oh}$ range, at least 0.025 to 0.5 (corresponding to $Z= {\mathit{Oh}}^{\ensuremath{-} 1} $ of 40 to 2), by adjusting ${V}_{o} $ appropriately. Air drag was found to dominate droplet flight, as may be expected. This can be accurately modelled to yield droplet formation time, which turned out to be $20\text{{\ndash}} 30~\lrm{\ensuremath{\mu}} \mathrm{s} $ under a wide range of jetting conditions. The corresponding initial droplet speed was found to vary linearly with ${V}_{o} $ , with a fluid-dependent threshold but a fluid-independent slope, and a minimum speed of about $2~\mathrm{m} ~{\mathrm{s} }^{\ensuremath{-} 1} $ . This suggests the existence of iso-velocity lines that run substantially parallel to the lower jetting boundary in the ${V}_{o} {{\ndash}}\mathit{Oh}$ diagram.

Type
Papers
Copyright
©2012 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Abraham, F. F. 1970 Functional dependence of drag coefficient of a sphere on Reynolds number. Phys. Fluids 13, 21942195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aernouts, T., Aleksandrov, T., Girotto, C., Genoe, J. & Poortmans, J. 2008 Polymer based organic solar cells using ink-jet printed active layers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 033306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anto, B. T., Sivaramakrishnan, S., Chua, L. L. & Ho, P. K. H. 2010 Hydrophilic sparse ionic monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles: highly concentrated nano-Au and nano-Ag ‘inks’ that can be sintered to near-bulk conductivity at $150\hspace{0.167em} \textdegree \mathrm{C} $ . Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 296303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, A. C., Ready, S. E., Lujan, R., Wong, W. S., Paul, K. E., Salleo, A., Chabinyc, M. L., Apte, R., Street, R. A., Wu, Y., Liu, P. & Ong, B. 2004 All jet-printed polymer thin-film transistor active-matrix backplanes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 33043306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bale, M., Carter, J. C., Creighton, C. J., Gregory, H. J., Lyon, P. H., Ng, P., Webb, L. & Wehrum, A. 2006 Ink-jet printing: the route to production of full colour P-OLED displays. J. Soc. Info. Displ. 453459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berggren, M., Nilsson, D. & Robinson, N. D. 2006 Organic materials for printed electronics. Nature Mater. 6, 35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bibl, A., Chen, Z. & Birkmeyer, J. 2005 Print head with thin membrane. Patent (U.S.P.T.O.), 0099467.Google Scholar
Czyzewski, J., Burzynski, P., Gawel, K. & Meisner, J. 2009 Rapid prototyping of electrically conductive components using 3D printing technology. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 52815285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dearden, A. L., Smith, P. J., Shin, D.-Y., Reis, N., Derby, B. & O’Brien, P. 2005 A low curing temperature silver ink for use in inkjet printing and subsequent production of conductive tracks. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 26, 315318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deegan, R. D., Bakajin, O., Dupont, T. F., Huber, G., Nagel, S. R. & Witten, T. A. 1997 Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops. Nature 389, 827829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deegan, R. D., Bakajin, O., Dupont, T. F., Huber, G., Nagel, S. R. & Witten, T. A. 2000 Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop. Phys. Rev. E 62, 756764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derby, B. 2010 Inkjet printing of functional and structural materials: fluid property requirements, feature stability and resolution. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40, 395414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derby, B. & Reis, N. 2003 Inkjet printing of highly loaded particulate suspensions. MRS Bull. 28, 815818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, H. & Carr, W. W. 2006 Visualization of drop-on-demand inkjet: drop formation and deposition. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 085101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, H., Carr, W. W. & Morris, J. F. 2006 An experimental study of drop-on-demand drop formation. Phys. Fluids 18, 072102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duineveld, P. C. 2003 The stability of ink-jet printed lines of liquid with zero receding contact angle on a homogeneous substrate. J. Fluid Mech. 477, 175200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duineveld, P. C., de Kok, M. M., Buechel, M., Sempel, A. H., Mutsaers, K. A. H., van de Weijer, P., Camps, I. G. J., van den Biggelaar, T. J. M., Rubingh, J. E. J. M. & Haskal, E. I. 2002 Ink-jet printing of polymer light-emitting devices. Proc. SPIE 4464, 5967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fakhfouri, V., Mermoud, G., Kim, J. Y., Martinoli, A. & Brugger, J. 2009 Drop-on-demand inkjet printing of SU-8 polymer. Micro Nanosyst. 1, 6367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fromm, J. E. 1984 Numerical calculations of the fluid dynamics of drop-on-demand jets. IBM J. Res. Dev. 28, 322333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuller, S. B., Wilhelm, E. J. & Jacobson, J. M. 2002 Ink-jet printed nanoparticle microelectromechanical systems. J. Microelectromech. Syst. 11, 5460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Gans, B. J., Duineveld, P. C. & Schubert, U. S. 2004 Inkjet printing of polymers: state of the art and future developments. Adv. Mater. 16, 203213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Gans, B. J. & Schubert, U. S. 2004 Inkjet printing of well-defined polymer dots and arrays. Langmuir 20, 77897793.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoath, S. D., Hsiao, W.-K., Jung, S., Martin, G. D. & Hutchings, I. M. 2012 Drop speeds from drop-on-demand ink-jet print heads. J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (submitted).Google Scholar
Hoth, C. N., Schilinsky, P., Choulis, S. A. & Brabec, C. J. 2008 Printing highly efficient organic solar cells. Nano Lett. 8, 28062813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, H. & Larson, R. G. 2006 Maragoni effect reverses coffee-ring depositions. J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 70907094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, T. R., Mao, M., Jones, A. R., Burchard, J., Marton, M. J., Shannon, K. W., Lefkowitz, S. M., Ziman, M., Schelter, J. M., Meyer, M. R., Kobayashi, S., Davis, C., Dai, H. Y., He, Y. D. D., Stephaniants, S. B., Cavet, G., Walker, W. L., West, A., Coffey, E., Shoemaker, D. D., Stoughton, R., Blanchard, A. P., Friend, S. H. & Linsley, P. S. 2001 Expression profiling using microarrays fabricated by an ink-jet oligonucleotide synthesizer. Nature Biotechnol. 19, 342347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ikegawa, M. & Azuma, H. 2004 Droplet behaviours on substrates in thin-film formation using inkjet printing. JSME Intl J. B 47, 490496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jang, D., Kim, D. & Moon, J. 2009 Influence of fluid physical properties on inkjet printability. Langmuir 25, 26292635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawase, T., Shimoda, T., Newsome, C., Sirringhaus, H. & Friend, R. H. 2003 Inkjet printing of polymer thin film transistors. Thin Solid Films 438–439, 279287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kobayashi, H., Kanbe, S., Seki, S., Kigchi, H., Kimura, M., Yudasaka, I., Miyashita, S., Shimoda, T., Towns, C. R., Burroughes, J. H. & Friend, R. H. 2000 A novel RGB multicolor light-emitting polymer display. Synth. Metals 111, 125128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, S. & Kruth, J. P. 2010 Composites by rapid prototyping technology. Mater. Design 31, 850856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Clair, B. P. & Hamielec, A. E. 1969 A numerical study of the drag on a sphere at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers. J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 308315.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S. P., Newsome, C. J., Kugler, T., Ishida, M. & Inoue, S. 2007 Polymer thin film transistors with self-aligned gates fabricated using ink-jet printing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 172103.Google Scholar
Martin, G. D., Hoath, S. D. & Hutchings, I. M. 2008 Inkjet printing – the physics of manipulating liquid jets and drops. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 105, 114.Google Scholar
Meier, H., Loffelmann, U., Mager, D., Smith, P. J. & Korvink, J. G. 2009 Inkjet printed, conductive $25~\lrm{\ensuremath{\mu}} \mathrm{m} $ wide silver tracks on unstructured polyimide. Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 16261630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mott, M., Song, J. H. & Evans, J. R. G. 1999 Microengineering of ceramics by direct ink-jet printing. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 16531658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, M., Kobayashi, A., Takagi, F., Watanabe, A., Hiruma, Y., Ohuchi, K., Iwasaki, Y., Horie, M., Morita, I. & Takatani, S. 2005 Biocompatible inkjet printing technique for designed seeding of individual living cells. Tissue Eng. 11, 16581666.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newman, J. D., Turner, A. P. F. & Marrazza, G. 1992 Ink-jet printing for the fabrication of amperometric glucose biosensors. Anal. Chim. Acta 262, 1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noguera, R., Lejeune, M. & Chartier, T. 2005 3D fine scale ceramic components formed by ink-jet prototyping process. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25, 20552059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Notz, P. K. & Basaran, O. A. 2006 Dynamics and breakup of a contracting liquid filament. J. Fluid Mech. 512, 223256.Google Scholar
Osch, T. H. J., Perelaer, J., Laat, A. W. M. & Schubert, U. S. 2008 Inkjet printing of narrow conductive tracks on untreated polymeric substrates. Adv. Mater. 20, 343345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perelaer, J., Smith, P. J., van den Bosch, E., van Grootel, S. S. C., Ketelaars, P. H. J. M. & Schubert, U. S. 2009 The spreading of inkjet-printed droplets with varying polymer molar mass on a dry solid substrate. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 210, 495502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reis, N., Ainsley, C. & Derby, B. 2005 Ink-jet delivery of particle suspensions by piezoelectric droplet ejectors. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 094903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reis, N. & Derby, B. 2000 Ink jet deposition of ceramic suspensions: modeling and experiments of droplet formation. MRS Symp. Proc. 625, 117122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roth, E. A., Xu, T., Das, M., Gregory, C., Hickman, J. J. & Boland, T. 2004 Inkjet printing for high-throughput cell patterning. Biomaterials 25, 37073715.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sachs, E., Cima, M., Williams, P., Brancazio, D. & Cornie, J. 1992 Three-dimensional printing: rapid tooling and prototypes directly from a CAD model. Trans. ASME: J. Engng Ind. 114, 481488.Google Scholar
Schiaffino, S. & Sonin, A. A. 1997a Formation and stability of liquid and molten beads on a solid surface. J. Fluid Mech. 343, 95110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schiaffino, S. & Sonin, A. A. 1997b Molten droplet deposition and solidification at low Weber numbers. Phys. Fluids 9, 31723187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shield, T. W., Bogy, D. B. & Talke, F. E. 1987 Drop formation by DOD inkjet nozzles: a comparison of experiment and numerical simulation. IBM J. Res. Dev. 31, 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, M., Haverinen, H. M., Dhagat, P. & Jabbour, G. E. 2009 Inkjet printing-process and its applications. Adv. Mater. 22, 673685.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sirringhaus, H., Kawase, T., Friend, R. H., Shimoda, T., Inbasekaran, M., Wu, W. & Woo, E. P. 2000 High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits. Science 290, 21232126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sivaramakrishnan, S., Chia, P. J., Yeo, Y. C., Chua, L. L. & Ho, P. K. H. 2007 Controlled insulator-to-metal transformation in printable polymer composites with nanometal clusters. Nature Mater. 6, 149155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soltman, D. & Subramanian, V. 2008 Inkjet-printed line morphologies and temperature control of the coffee ring effect. Langmuir 24, 22242231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Son, Y., Kim, C., Yang, D. H. & Ahn, D. J. 2008 Spreading of an inkjet droplet on a solid surface with a controlled contact angle at low Weber and Reynolds numbers. Langmuir 24, 29002907.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wijshoff, H. 2010 The dynamics of the piezo inkjet printhead operation. Phys. Rep. 491, 77177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, L. Y., Png, R. Q., Silva, F. B. S., Chua, L. L., Repaka, D. V. M., Chen, S., Gao, X. Y., Ke, L., Chua, S. J., Wee, A. T. S. & Ho, P. K. H. 2010 Interplay of processing, morphological order, and charge-carrier mobility in polythiophene thin films deposited by different methods: comparison of spin-cast, drop-cast, and inkjet-printed films. Langmuir 26, 1549415507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xia, Y. & Friend, R. H. 2006 Polymer bilayer structure via inkjet printing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Q. & Basaran, O. A. 2007 Computational analysis of drop-on-demand drop formation. Phys. Fluids 19, 102111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xue, F., Liu, Z., Su, Y. & Varahramyan, K. 2006 Inkjet printed silver source/drain electrodes for low-cost polymer thin films transistors. Microelectron. Engng 83, 298302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Jettable fluid space and jetting characteristics of a microprint head
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Jettable fluid space and jetting characteristics of a microprint head
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Jettable fluid space and jetting characteristics of a microprint head
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *