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Richard Pace and the Psalms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 April 2021

New College, Oxford
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In the library of Winchester College is a multi-lingual psalter formerly owned by the diplomat and scholar, Richard Pace (c.1483–1536). Pace left extensive notes in this volume, the product of his study of the Hebrew Scriptures in comparison with the Vulgate and Greek Septuagint. They demonstrate his engagement with a variety of Jewish, patristic and humanist learning. A broader set of theological and devotional themes also emerge. For Pace, the Psalms were primarily a prophetic text, foretelling the coming of Christ and the Gospels, but they likewise reflected an interest in devotion, rhetoric and prayer typical of humanists of the period.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Research for this article was supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (grant no. AH/L503885/1) and New College, Oxford. I am deeply grateful to Richard Foster, Fellow Librarian at Winchester College, for his invaluable assistance. My thanks to my supervisors, Susan Brigden and Steve Gunn, and to James Carley, James Willoughby and Kiran Mehta for commenting upon various drafts. A version of this paper was first presented at the Ecclesiastical History Society Postgraduate Colloquium (2019) at De Montfort University in Leicester.


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2 Gasquet, Francis, Cardinal Pole and his early friends, London 1927, 87–9Google Scholar; Thomas Lupset to Desiderius Erasmus, 23 Aug. 1525, ep. mdxcv, CWE xi. 230–2; CSP: Spain, iii/2, 224.

3 CSP: Spain, iii/2, 224.

4 TNA, SP 1/51, fo. 15r.

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6 Wegg, Pace, 4–7; D. Wright, ‘Langton, Thomas (c.1430–1501)’, ODNB; Brown, R., ‘Thomas Langton and his tradition of teaching’, Transactions of the Antiquarian and Archeological Society of Cumberland and Westmorland xxvi (1926), 150246Google Scholar; Curtis, ‘Pace on pedagogy’, 16–62; Woolfson, Jonathan, Padua and the Tudors: English students in Italy, 1485–1603, Cambridge 1998, 91102CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lowry, Martin, ‘Paolo Bombace’, in Bietenholz, Peter and Deutchser, Thomas (eds), Contemporaries of Erasmus: a biographical register of the Renaissance and Reformation, Toronto 1985–7, i. 163–5Google Scholar.

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8 Desiderius Erasmus, Nouum instrumentum, Basle 1516, WCFL, A19 bk269. In 1 Corinthians an annotator has corrected four Greek words. The hand shows some similarity with Pace's own but the sample size is too small for a positive identification. For Pace's Greek hand see BL, ms Harleian 6989, fos 27r–28v.

9 BL, ms Harleian 6989, fos 27r–28v; Richard Pace to Erasmus, 5 Aug. 1517, ep. lxix, CWE v. 57.

10 Pace, Richard, De fructu qui ex doctrina percipitur: the benefit of a liberal education, ed. Manley, Frank and Sylvester, Richard, New York 1967Google Scholar; Curtis, Catherine, ‘Richard Pace's De fructu and early Tudor pedagogy’, in Woolfson, Jonathan (ed.), Reassessing Tudor humanism, Basingstoke 2002, 4377CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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12 Christie-Miller, ‘Psalterium in quatuor linguis’, no. 3.

13 Willoughby, James (ed.), The libraries of collegiate churches, London 2013, iiGoogle Scholar, SC 345.5–59, 819–35; Quarrie, Paul, Winchester College and the King James Bible, Winchester 2011, 57–8Google Scholar.

14 Quarrie, Winchester College, 57.

15 In May and July: BL, ms Cotton Vitellius B. xx, fos 124r–v, 173r.

16 Gee, J., The life and works of Thomas Lupset, New Haven 1928, 297Google Scholar.

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18 Bellis, Daniela De, ‘La vita e l'ambiente di Niccolò Leonico Tomeo’, Quaderni per la Storia dell'Università di Padova xviii (1980), 3675Google Scholar; D'Ascia, Luca, ‘Un erasmiano italiano? Note sulla filosofia della religione di Niccolò Leonico Tomeo’, Rivista di Storia e Letterature Religiosa xxvi (1990), 242–64Google Scholar; Woolfson, Jonathan and Gregory, Andrew, ‘Aspects of collecting in Renaissance Padua: a bust of Socrates for Niccolò Leonico’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes lviii (1995), 252–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

19 Gasquet, Cardinal Pole, 84–5.

20 Ibid. 87–9; Lupset to Erasmus, 23 Aug. 1525, ep. mdxcv, CWE xi. 230–2; CSP: Spain, iii/2, 224. Erasmus thought syphilis was the cause: Erasmus to Lupset, c. Oct 1525, ep. mdcxxiv, CWE xi. 305.

21 Edward Jones and Alexandra Walsham (eds), Syon Abbey and its books: reading, writing and religion, c.1400–1700, Woodbridge 2010; Costa, Alexandra da, Reforming printing: Syon Abbey's defence of orthodoxy, Oxford 2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

22 Jonathan Woolfson, ‘Wakefield, Robert (d.1537/8)’, ODNB; Wegg, Pace, 257, 274; Carley, James, ‘Religious controversy and marginalia: Pierfrancesco di Piero Bardi, Thomas Wakefield and their books’, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society xii (2002), 206–45Google Scholar, and ‘Thomas Wakefield, Robert Wakefield and the Cotton Genesis’, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society xii (2002), 246–65. Pole may have joined Pace in study: Robert Wakefield, On the three languages [1524], ed. G Lloyd Jones, New York 1989, 46.

23 Calendar of state papers and manuscripts, relating to English affairs, existing in the archives and collections of Venice, and in other libraries of northern Italy, ed. Rawdon Brown, George Bentinck, Horatio Brown and A. B. Hinds, London 1864–1947, iv. 144.

26 ‘si deus vitam suppeditabit’: Richard Pace, Praefatio in Ecclesiasten recognitum ad hebraicam veritatem, London 1527 (RSTC 19082), sig. A3v.

27 Rex, Richard, ‘The earliest use of Hebrew in books printed in England: dating some works of Richard Pace and Robert Wakefield’, Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society ix (1990), 517–25Google Scholar; Jones, G. Lloyd, The discovery of Hebrew in Tudor England: a third language, Manchester 1983, 106–9Google Scholar.

28 The definitive account of Fisher's treatise is Rex, Richard, The theology of John Fisher, Cambridge 1991, 148–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar. For the tract itself see Rex, Richard, ‘St John Fisher's treatise on the authority of the Septuagint’, Journal of Theological Studies xliii (1992), 55116CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and TNA, SP 6/5, fos 45r–83v.

29 Biblia hebraica, Soncino 1488, BL, C.50.c4*; Curtis, ‘Pace on pedagogy’, 312–16; Basil Hall, ‘Cranmer's relations with Erasmianism and Lutheranism’, in Paul Ayris and David Selwyn (eds), Thomas Cranmer: churchman and scholar, Woodbridge 1993, 8.

30 The translator frequently used the word Iehova instead of domine, a feature not present in Pace's psalter. Pace's consistent use of laudare is not present in the Soncino.

31 Lloyd Jones, The discovery of Hebrew, 26–36, 39–55.

32 Troyer, Kristin De, ‘The Septuagint’, in Cameron, Euan (ed.), The new Cambridge history of the Bible, Cambridge 2012–15, i. 267–88Google Scholar.

33 Price, David, Johannes Reuchlin and the campaign to destroy Jewish books, Oxford 2011Google Scholar.

34 Ibid. 5.

35 Woolfson, ‘Wakefield’; Alfredo Cioni, ‘Bomberg, Daniel’, Dizionario biografico degli Italiani xi, Rome 1969, 382–6; Bruce Nielsen, ‘Daniel van Bombergen, a bookman of two worlds’, in Joseph Hacker and Adam Shear (eds), The Hebrew book in early modern Italy, Philadelphia, Pa 2011, 56–75.

36 Vincent Gillespie (ed.), Syon Abbey, London 2001, SS1:546–51, 390, 391. Two of these survive: Merton College, Oxford, 76.B.11; Bodleian Library, Oxford, 8o A.11.Th.(2).

37 Virginia Bainbridge, ‘Reynolds, Richard (d.1535)’, ODNB.

38 Woolfson, ‘Wakefield’.

39 ‘ut inter paucos dies, illos odiosos grammatices scopulos satis faciliter pertransirem, et ad altiora ascenderem in quibus intra mensem tantum profeci’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. A2.

40 Carley, ‘Religious controversy and marginalia’, 240–2.

41 ‘In hebraeo non habetur non sed subauditur quia negatio in principio orationis apud hebraeos, totam orationem reddit negationem’: Potken, Psalterium, sig. b1v, WCFL.

42 J. Weingreen, A practical grammar for classical Hebrew, Oxford 1959, 56–7; Brian Cummings, The literary culture of the Reformation: grammar and grace, Oxford 2002, 200–1.

43 Johann Reuchlin, De rudimentis hebraicis, Pforzheim 1506, 585.

44 See n. 27 above.

45 ‘Primo pono quae habentur in nostra translatione: deinde verba lxx interpretum, postremo hebraica. Et ea quae dicunt lxx graece, interpretor ad verbum, sicut et hebraica: ut unusquique intellectis verbis, possit colligere sensum: et manifeste videre lxx interpretes omnia hebraica ad verbum ferme transtulisse, exceptis his quae non intellexerunt, et usos esse per totam scripturam idiomate hebraeo’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. A3r.

46 Wakefield, On the three languages, 138; Pace, Praefatio, sigs E1v–2r.

47 David Stec, The Targum of Psalms: translated with a critical introduction, apparatus and notes, London 2004, 1–4.

48 Alistair Hamilton, ‘The study of tongues: the Semitic languages and the Bible in the Renaissance’, in Cameron, New Cambridge history of the Bible, iii. 17–36.

49 Carley, ‘Religious controversy and marginalia’, passim; Judith Olszowy-Schlanger, ‘Robert Wakefield and his Hebrew manuscripts’, Zutot vi (2009), 25–34, and ‘Robert Wakefield and the medieval background of Hebrew scholarship in Renaissance England’, in Guilio Busi (ed.), Hebrew to Latin, Latin to Hebrew: the mirroring of two cultures in the age of humanism, Berlin 2006, 61–87; Wakefield, On the three languages, 138; Pace, Praefatio, sigs E1v–2r.

50 ‘Baẓa est in hebreo quod nomen non modo auaritiam sed etiam fraudem et calumniam significat et iniuriam. Targum chaldaicum interpretatur diuitias. Alij amorem diuitiarum. LXX ponunt υπε[ρ]ηφάνιαν, id est, superbiam’: Potken, Psalterium, sig. u2v, WCFL.

51 Reuchlin, De rudimentis hebraicis, 88.

52 Potken, Psalterium, sig. u2v, WCFL.

53 ‘Mota est chuli in hebraeo est, quae vox secundum rabi Sa[lomen], non est verbum in hoc loco sed nomen, significans creatorem ut sit sensus a facie dei creatoris terrae, a chol legenda est non chulj’: ibid. sig. t3v.

55 Sebastian Münster, Biblia sacra, Zürich 1539, fo. 225v.

56 Jerry Bentley, Humanists and holy writ: New Testament scholarship in the Renaissance, Princeton 1983, 50–1, 161–2.

57 Jerome, Psalterium iuxta hebraeos Hieronymi, ed. Paul de Lagarde, Leipzig 1874. Pace could have used the ninth volume of the Basle edition of Jerome: Omnium operum divi Eusebii Hieronymi, Basle 1516.

58 Jerome, The apology against Rufinus, 1.19, in Dogmatic and polemical works, trans. John Hritzu, Washington 1965, 84–5.

59 Potken, Psalterium, sig. a2v, WCFL.

60 ‘Meschek est in hebraeo quae dictio secund[um] aliquos cappodotia[m], Hierony[mus]’: ibid. sig. x4v.

61 ‘Pro imperfectum meum, hiero[nymus] ponit informem me respiciens ad id quod verbum hebraicum in hoc positum sed golmi significat embryonem’: ibid. sig. ç2v.

62 Thomas Scheck, Erasmus's life of Origen: a new annotated translation of the prefaces to Erasmus of Rotterdam's edition of Origen's writings (1536), Washington 2016, 82–109.

63 ‘Unde diuus Hierony[mus] centies citans Symmachum et Aquilam, eos praefert lxx sicut Origenes quoque interdum Aquilam’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. B2v.

64 Potken, Psalterium, sigs x4v–y1r, WCFL.

65 ‘Hierony[mus] in epistola ad Marcellam ubi nos habemus “filij excussorum”, Aquila habet “filij pubertatum”. Sym. et Theodo. “filij iuventutis. Sexta editio, “exacuti sensus”. Ex quo manifestum est populos adolescentiae intellegi christianos’: ibid. sig. x6v.

66 Jerome, Lettres, ed. Jérôme Labourt, Paris 1949–63, ii, ep. xxxiv, pp. 44–9.

67 My thanks to James Carley and Judith Olszowy-Schlanger for discounting Robert Wakefield as an annotator.

68 Potken, Psalterium, sigs h4v–5r, WCFL.

69 Gino Damerini, L'isola e il cenobio di San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice 1959, 53–7, 145–53; Giorgio Ravegnani, Le biblioteche del monastero di S. Giorgio Maggiore, Florence 1976; Marino Zorzi, ‘Dal manoscritto al libro’, in Gino Benzoni and Antonio Menniti Ippolito (eds), Storia di Venezia: dalle origini all caduta della Serenissima, Rome 1992–8, 817–958.

70 C. van Leikenhorst, ‘Jan van der Cruyce’, in Bietenholz and Deutchser, Contemporaries of Erasmus, i. 371; Rex, Fisher, 149.

71 The Praefatio comments on Psalms iii, vii, xxi (xxii), xxvi (xxvii), xxxiv (xxxv), xxxix (xl), l (li), lvii (lviii), lxxi (lxxii) and lxxxvii (lxxxviii), all of which are reflected by changes in the margins of his psalter.

72 Rex, Theology, 149.

73 Schwarz, W., Principles and problems of biblical translation: some Reformation controversies and their background, Cambridge 1955, 6191Google Scholar; Wasserstein, Abraham, The legend of the Septuagint: from classical antiquity to today, Cambridge 2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Richard Rex, ‘Humanist bible controversies’, in Cameron, New Cambridge history of the Bible, iii. 61–81.

74 Pace, Praefatio, sig. F2r–v.

75 ‘ubi dicit Christus: Ex ore infantium et lactentium perfecisti laudem, sicut transtulerunt 70 licet sit in hebraeo issadta hoz fundasti fortitudinem’: ibid. sig. F2r.

76 ‘Et hoc modo nulla erit discrepantia inter Christum, LXX et hebraicum veritatem’: ibid.

77 ‘Illud autem verbum καταρτίζω non proprie significat perficio sed apto, et aptare potest recte dici fundare, quia fundare nihil aliud est quam bene aptare et alterum cum altero componere’: ibid.

78 ‘Sed si quis mutet accentum ab αἶνος in αἰνός quod validum significat, tunc idem erit quod est in hebraeo oz’: ibid. sig. F2v.

79 ‘In actis apostolorum ca. 2. sic ligitur hic versus Replebis me iocunditate cum facie tua’: Potken, Psalterium, sig. b5v, WCFL.

81 R. Gerald Hobbs, ‘Hebraica veritas and traditio apostolica: Saint Paul and the interpretation of the Psalms in the sixteenth century’, in David Steinmetz (ed.), The Bible in the sixteenth century, Durham, NC 1990, 92.

82 ‘Tres versus sequentes non sunt in hebraeo’: Potken, Psalterium, sig. b3v, WCFL.

83 One such instance is the punctuation of Psalm xciv(xcv).7. The Masoretic text reads: ‘we are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his hand today, if you will hear his voice’. However, the Septuagint had attached the line to the following verse, changing the meaning of the line (a punctuation reproduced in Hebrews iii.7). Pace's notes in the psalter, nevertheless, make no comment on this: Hobbs, ‘Hebraica veritas’, 93.

84 Pace, Praefatio, sig. F3v.

85 Wakefield, On the three languages, 74.

86 Ibid. 170–2.

87 Erasmus to Jacopo Sadoleto, c. Apr. 1530, ep. mmcccxiiA, CWE xvi. 301.

88 John Fisher, Treatise concerning the fruitful sayings of David, London 1508 (RSTC 10902); Longland, John, Psalmus sextus, London 1527Google Scholar (RSTC 16793).

89 Dominic Baker Smith, ‘Introduction’, CWE lxiii, pp. i–lxxii.

90 M. Kuczynski, Prophetic song: the Psalms as moral discourse in late medieval England, Philadelphia, Pa 1995; Pak, G. Sujin, The judaizing Calvin: sixteenth-century debates over the messianic Psalms, Oxford 2009, 1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

91 Pak, Judaizing, 20.

92 ‘quo nullum mysterium in scriptura possit construi, nisi fundetur supra simplicem literam bene intellectam et de litera legis et evangelico mysterio’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. B3v.

93 ‘Praeterea mandavit deus in lege veteri, ut immolarentur animalia et victimae, non typice tantum et figuraliter (ut tu fortasse sentis) sed vere, et iuxta simplicem literam, ut videlicet nos pedetentim, ab imis ad summa, id est, a carnlibus ad spiritualia perduceret … Atqui nisi conferamus immolationem veterem cum nova, magnam vim sui demonstrandi nova plane amittet’: ibid. sigs B5v–C1r.

94 ‘Sciendum est, igitur hoc nomen Iesus, nusquam legi apud hebraeos, nec in significatione salvatoris, nec alterius ciuispiam rei … Caeterum habent iescha, ieschua, teschua, quae omnia non salvatorem, sed salutem significant’: ibid. sig. D2r; cf. Wakefield, On the three languages, 94.

95 The etymologies of Isidore of Seville, trans. Stephen Barney, W. Lewis, J. Beach, Oliver Berghof and Muriel Hall, Cambridge 2006, vii.ii.7, p. 155.

96 ‘Et quod plus est, eorum linguam non habere tales nominum terminationes, quales sunt latinae in or, et graecae in ήρ ut σωτήρ et salvator, nam talia exprimunt per participia’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. D2r.

97 ‘Nam si rem penitius intueri volverimus, magis indicat, exprimit, et extollit maiestatem Christi, nomen salus, quam salvator. Siquidem maiorem vim et emphasim habet: ut quum volumus laudare aliquem ab insigni pietate et excellente. Dicimus eum non modo pium esse, sed ipsam etiam esse pietatem’: ibid.

98 Jerome, Apology against Rufinus, 1.19, pp. 84–5.

99 Ibid. 84.

100 ‘illuminatio, pro luce. Est enim in hebraeo: Dominus lux mea, sicut Christus de se ipso dicit in evangelio. Ego sum lux mundi’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. D4r.

101 Potken, Psalterium, sig. ç1v, WCFL.

102 Ibid. c6v; Jerome, Psalterium iuxta hebraeos, 22.

103 Berndt Hamm, The reformation of faith in the context of late medieval theology and piety: essays, trans. Robert Bast, Leiden 2004, 163–70; McGrath, Alister, Luther's theology of the cross: Martin Luther's theological breakthrough, Oxford 1986, 100–1, 149–71Google Scholar.

104 Hobbs, R. Gerald, ‘How firm a foundation: Martin Bucer's historical exegesis of the Psalms’, Church History liii (1984), 477–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and ‘Conrad Pellican and the Psalms’, Reformation & Renaissance Review i (1999), 72–99.

105 John Fisher, ‘The sermon … made agayn the pernicious doctryn of Martin Luther’, in English works of John Fisher, bishop of Rochester (1469–1535): sermons and other writings, ed. Cecilia Hatt, Oxford 2002, 77–97.

106 ‘eisque insignem veritatis inquirendae occasionem prebere’: Pace, Praefatio, sig. A3r.

107 Ibid. sig. e2v; Cummings, Literary culture, 225.

108 Potken, Psalterium, sig. u5v, WCFL.

109 ‘Uter in pruina: intus vacuus, foris contiactus. Arno[bius]. Hierony[mus] vero sic exponit: Erimus quasi uter in pruina quod refrigerat in nobis ardor peccatj’: ibid.

110 Ibid. sig. b2v.

111 Erasmus, Exposition of Psalm 1, ed. Dominic Baker Smith, CWE lxiii. 10.

112 Pace, De fructu; Curtis, ‘Pace's De fructu’, 43–77; Pace, Richard, Plutarchi Chaeronei libellus de avaritia, per eximium Richardum Pacaeum, Rome 1522/3Google Scholar.

113 I due primi registri di prestiti della Biblioteca Vaticana: Codici Vaticani latini 3964, 3966, ed. Maria Bertola, Vatican City 1942, 108; Woolfson, Jonathan, ‘Reginald Pole and his Greek manuscripts in Oxford: a reconsideration’, Bodleian Library Record xvii (2000), 7995Google Scholar.

114 Ross, J. B., ‘Gasparo Contarini and his friends’, Studies in the Renaissance xvii (1970), 218–19Google Scholar; Danzi, Massimo, La biblioteca del cardinal Pietro Bembo, Geneva 2005, 90–1Google Scholar.

115 Massimo Danzi, ‘Cultura ebraica di Pietro Bembo’, in Simone Albonico (ed.), Per Cesare Bozzetti: studi de letteratura e filologia italiana, Milan 1996, 283–307.

116 J. B. Trapp, ‘Colet, John (1467–1519)’, ODNB.

117 Anne Overell, ‘Pole's piety? The devotional reading of Reginald Pole and his friends’, this Journal lxiii (2012), 458–74; The correspondence of Reginald Pole, ed. Thomas Mayer, Aldershot 2002–17, i. 89; Mayer, Pole, 32–3, 115–23; Carol Kidwell, Marcantonio Flaminio: poet, humanist, and reformer, London 1965. For van Kampen see de Vocht, Henry, History of the foundation and the rise of the Collegium trilingue louvaniense, Louvain 1951–5Google Scholar.

118 Whitford, Richard, The pomander of prayer, London 1531Google Scholar (RSTC 25421), sig. B7r.

119 Potken, Psalterium, sig. a2v, WCFL.

120 Erasmus, Exposition of Psalm 38, ed. Baker Smith, CWE lxiv. 11. See Dominic Baker Smith, ‘Introduction’, CWE lxiii, pp. xxxi–xxxiii.

121 Wakefield, On the three languages, 82.

122 Ibid. 80.

123 Potken, Psalterium, sig. x3v, WCFL.

124 Pace did likewise at Psalm xviii (xix).2: ‘copiose effundit’. Jerome uses ‘fundant’: Psalterium iuxta hebraeos, 165.

125 Mack, Peter, A history of Renaissance rhetoric, 1380–1620, Oxford 2011, 80–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Cave, Terence, The cornucopian text, Oxford 1979Google Scholar.

126 Wakefield, On the three languages, 110, 84.

127 Potken, Psalterium, sigs ÿ6v–ç1v, WCFL.

128 Reuchlin, De rudimentis hebraicis, 210.

129 Wakefield, On the three languages, 110–12.

130 Jerome, Psalterium iuxta hebraeos, 179.

131 Athanasius, The life of Anthony and the letter to Marcellinus, trans. Robert Gregg, New York 1980, 109; Price, Reuchlin, 34.

132 Jerome, Homilies, i. 60.

133 ‘Et confiteor dixit, iuxta sermonis Hebraei proprietatem, pro laudo, gratias ago’: Desiderius Erasmus, Annotationes in nouum testamentum, Basle 1527, 50.

134 Taylor, Andrew, ‘Suffering and scholarship: the contexts of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey's Ecclesiastes’, Translation and Literature xxii (2013), 170Google Scholar. Wakefield's later Paraphrasis in librum Koheleth (London 1528?) may reflect some of the pair's shared interests: see especially the discussion of the LXX and Jerome at sigs D2v–3r.

135 L&P iv/2, 3233, 3234.

136 CSP: Spain, iii/2, 224.

137 Ibid.

138 Ibid.

139 Glanmore Williams, ‘Skevington [formerly Pace], Thomas’, ODNB.

140 TNA, SP 1/51, fos 15r–v; Baker, J., The men of court, 1450–1550: a prosopography of the Inns of Court and Chancery and the courts of law, London 2012, ii. 1183Google Scholar.

141 The catalogue of the college's library in 1565 listed both a copy of Erasmus’ 1516 New Testament translation ‘cum annotationes’ and a ‘psalterium 4 linguarum’. There were three copies of the Nouum instrumentum at the college by the seventeenth century, only two of which remain in the library today. One copy can be discounted as that given by Ferdinand Bye in 1641. Pace's must either be that listed in 1565 or that given by Roger Hurd in 1593. The psalter is more straightforward since there is no record of another Cologne Psalter being given at a later date, nor do any of the other psalters match the description. It was certainly in the library by 1634 when the more detailed inventory specified a ‘Psalmi Davidici Hebr. Graec. Chald. Latin Col. 1518’: Willoughby, Libraries of collegiate churches, ii, SC 345:5 and 345:59, pp. 819, 835. Information also supplied by Richard Foster, Fellow Librarian of Winchester College.

142 CSP: Spain, iv/1, 194.

143 Erasmus to Pace, 22 Mar. 1530, ep. mmcclxxxvii, CWE xvi. 233–4.

144 TNA, SP 1/56, fo. 59r.

145 L&P vii. 865.

146 TNA, SP 1/102, fo. 51v.

147 Lloyd Jones, The discovery of Hebrew, 39–55.

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