It is widely known that the Roma have been suffering persistent disadvantages. Yet, little empirical evidence exists. Using the censuses of 1977, 1992, 2002, and 2011, I provide a comprehensive overview of the past, present, and an outlook on the future of the Roma in Romania, home to a large and rapidly growing Roma community. Young Roma, in particular girls, are less likely to be attending school, indicating that lack of educational attainment is likely to persist. The Roma have worse housing conditions and face lower employment and higher unemployment levels. Amongst Roma, females are less likely to be employed than males. Oaxaca–Blinder decompositions of the ethnic and gender employment gaps reveal that the differences in employment cannot be fully explained by observables, such as age or education. Despite the seemingly dire picture, there are signs of improvement for more recent cohorts, as literacy rates have reached close to universal levels.