Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-c47g7 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-21T18:01:54.182Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examination to evaluate health status of mammary glands of ewes at the end of a lactation period

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2018

George Mantziaras
Affiliation:
Veterinary Department, Hellenic Air Force General Staff, Athens, Greece
Natalia GC Vasileiou
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Katerina S Ioannidi
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Vasiliki S Mavrogianni
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Dimitrios A Gougoulis
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
George C Fthenakis*
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Ioannis G Petridis
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
Mariana S Barbagianni
Affiliation:
Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece
*
*For correspondence; e-mail: gcf@vet.uth.gr

Abstract

This research communication describes the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examination (CEUS) in mammary glands of ewes for diagnosis of chronic mastitis; this is the first report of the use of this modality in diagnostic imaging of mammary glands of ruminants. For this purpose, a convex transducer was used, with the following settings: frequency: 2·0/4·0 MHz, mechanical index: 0·09, power: 22 dB, scanning depth: 70 mm, and sulphur hexafluoride in microbubbles at a dose of 20 µl as the contrast agent. In four healthy mammary glands (2 ewes), CEUS examination revealed a steady biphasic pattern of contrast agent kinetics characterised by initial uptake within 15–40 s post-injection, at which time intensity peaked with strong enhancement (130–200 AEU) followed by a gradual wash-out phase. In three mammary glands with history of clinical mastitis (2 ewes), the pattern was particularly inconsistent and unclear, with weak enhancement (<100 AEU) (P < 0·01) lasting for a short period. Notwithstanding issues regarding cost and withdrawal period of contrast-agent, this imaging modality may contribute to improved diagnosis of mastitis cases, especially on occasions when abnormalities cannot be easily confirmed by more conventional methods.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Hannah Dairy Research Foundation 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Barbagianni, MS, Gouletsou, PG, Valasi, I, Petridis, IG, Giannenas, I & Fthenakis, GC 2015 Ultrasonographic findings in the ovine udder during lactogenesis in healthy ewes or ewes with pregnancy toxaemia. Journal of Dairy Research 82 293303 Google Scholar
Barbagianni, MS, Mavrogianni, VS, Vasileiou, NGC, Fthenakis, GC & Petridis, IG 2017 Ultrasonographic examination of the udder in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 152 8699 Google Scholar
Bouakaz, A, Frinking, PJ, de Jong, N & Bom, N 1999 Non-invasive measurement of the hydrostatic pressure in a fluid-filled cavity based on the disappearance time of micrometer-sized free gas bubbles. Ultrasound Medicine and Biology 9 14071415 Google Scholar
European Medicines Agency 2006. Sonovue (Sulphur Hexafluoride) – Summary of Product Characteristics, 25 pp. London: European Medicines Agency Google Scholar
Feliciano, MAR, Uscategui, RAR, Maronezi, MC, Simões, APR, Silva, P, Gasser, B, Pavan, L, Carvalho, CF, Canola, JC & Vicente, WRR 2017. Ultrasonography methods for predicting malignancy in canine mammary tumors. PLoS ONE 12 e0178143 Google Scholar
Fragkou, IA, Mavrogianni, VS, Cripps, PJ, Gougoulis, DA & Fthenakis, GC 2007 The bacterial flora in the teat duct of ewes can protect against and can cause mastitis. Veterinary Research 38 525545 Google Scholar
Fragkou, IA, Boscos, CM & Fthenakis, GC 2014 Diagnosis of clinical or subclinical mastitis in ewes. Small Ruminant Research 118 8692 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fthenakis, GC 1994 Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in ewes of Southern Greece. Small Ruminant Research 13 293300 Google Scholar
Fthenakis, GC & Jones, JET 1990 The effect of inoculation of coagulase-negative staphylococci into the ovine mammary gland. Journal of Comparative Pathology 102 211219 Google Scholar
Gelasakis, AI, Mavrogianni, VS, Petridis, IG, Vasileiou, NGC & Fthenakis, GC 2015 Mastitis in sheep – The last 10 years and the future of research. Veterinary Microbiology 181 136146 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ginther, OJ 2007 Ultrasonic Imaging and Animal Reproduction: Color-Doppler Ultrasonography, Book 4, 258 pp. Wisconsin: Equiservices Publishing Google Scholar
International Contrast Ultrasound Society 2017. Benefits of CEUS. http://www.icus-society.org/about-ceus/benefits-of-ceus Google Scholar
Jiang, YX, Liu, H, Zhu, QL, Sun, Q & Chang, XY 2007 Breast tumor size assessment: comparison of conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 33 18731881 Google Scholar
Liu, H, Jiang, YX, Liu, JB, Zhu, QL, Sun, Q & Chang, XY 2009 Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation. Journal of Ultrasound Medicine 28 911920 Google Scholar
Lowry, R 2012 Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics. Poughkeepsie: Vassar College Google Scholar
Lowry, R 2015 VassarStats website. http://vassarstats.net Google Scholar
Mavrogianni, VS, Fthenakis, GC, Brooks, H, Papaioannou, N, Cripps, PJ, Taitzoglou, I, Brellou, G & Saratsis, P 2005 The effects of inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica into the teat of lactating ewes. Veterinary Research 36 1325 Google Scholar
Ojala, T, Pietikaeinen, M & Maeenpaea, T 2002 Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 24 971987 Google Scholar
Petridis, IG, Gouletsou, PG, Barbagianni, MS, Amiridis, GS, Brozos, C, Valasi, I & Fthenakis, GC 2014 Ultrasonographic findings in the ovine udder during involution. Journal of Dairy Research 81 288296 Google Scholar
Petridis, IG, Barbagianni, MS, Ioannidi, KS, Samaras, E, Fthenakis, GC & Vloumidi, EI 2017 Doppler ultrasonographic examination in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 152 2232 Google Scholar
Schneider, M 1999 Characteristics of SonoVue®. Echocardiography 16 743746 Google Scholar
Tzora, A, Fthenakis, GC & Linde, K 1998 The effects of inoculation of listeria monocytogenes into the ovine mammary gland. Veterinary Microbiology 59 193202 Google Scholar
Walpole, SC, Prieto-Merino, D, Edwards, P, Cleland, J, Stevens, G & Roberts, I 2012. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass. BMC Public Health 12 439 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xiao, X, Ou, B, Yang, J, Wu, H & Luo, B 2014 Breast contrast-enhanced ultrasound: is a scoring system feasible? A preliminary study in China. PLoS ONE 9 e105517 Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Mantziaras et al. supplementary material

Mantziaras et al. supplementary material 1

Download Mantziaras et al. supplementary material(PDF)
PDF 308.8 KB