Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-zlj4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-20T17:40:28.162Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Natural selection and population diversity

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 September 2011

A. C. Allison
Affiliation:
Clinical Research Centre, Medical Research Council, London

Extract

It is an observed fact that human populations differ in genetic composition. Some of the inherited diversity is due to combined effects of many genes. Although it would be interesting to know the magnitude and nature of the genetic contribution to some characters under polygenic control, such as intelligence or physique, environmental effects may be so great that no genetic analysis is possible—as Thoday has pointed out earlier in this symposium. With other polygenic characters, such as skin colour, the genetic component is more obvious but still difficult to analyse precisely. The number of genes involved, their frequency and dominance have not been established. This is one of the reasons why selective effects on such characters are not readily measured, although they probably exist.

Type
Genetic aspects
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1969

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allison, A.C. (1954) The distribution of the sickle-cell trait in East Africa and elsewhere and its apparent relationship to the incidence of subtertian malaria. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 48, 312.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1955) Aspects of polymorphism in man. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 20, 239.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1956) The sickle-cell and haemoglobin C genes in some African populations. Ann. hum. Genet. 21, 67.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1960) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in red blood cells of East Africans. Nature, Lond. 186, 431.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1964) Polymorphism and natural selection in human populations. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 29, 137.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1965a) Population genetics of abnormal haemoglobins and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. In Abnormal Haemoglobins in Africa. Ed. Jonxis, J.H.P.. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. (1965b) Genetic factors in resistance against virus infections. Arch. ges. Virusforsch. 17, 280.Google Scholar
Allison, A.C. & Clyde, D.F. (1961) Malaria in African children with deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Br. med. J. i, 1346.Google Scholar
Azevêdo, E., Krieger, H. & Morton, N.E. (1964) Smallpox and the ABO blood groups in Brazil. Am. J. hum. Genet. 16, 451.Google Scholar
Barnicot, N.A., Allison, A.C., Blumberg, B.S., Deliyannis, G., Krimbas, C. & Ballas, A. (1963) Haemoglobin types in Greek populations. Ann. hum. Genet. 26, 229.Google Scholar
Bodmer, W.F. & Parsons, P.A. (1960) The initial progress of new genes with various genetic systems. Heredity, 15, 283.Google Scholar
Boyd, M.F. & Stratman-Thomas, W.K. (1933) Studies on benign tertian malaria: on the refractoriness of negroes to infection with P. vivax. Am. J. Hyg. 14, 485.Google Scholar
Boyden, S.U. (1963) Cellular recognition of foreign matter. Int. Rev. exp. Path. 2, 311.Google Scholar
Briles, W.E. (1960) Blood groups in chickens, their nature and utilization. Wld's Poult. Sci. J. 16, 223.Google Scholar
Brues, A.M. (1954) Selection and polymorphism in the A-B-O blood groups. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 12, 559.Google Scholar
Brues, A.M. (1963) Stochastic tests of selection in the ABO blood groups. Am. J. phys. Anthrop. 21, 1963.Google Scholar
Carcassi, V., Ceppellini, R. & Pitzus, F. (1957) Frequenza della talassemia in quattro popolazioni sarde e suoi rapporti con la distribuzione de gruppi sanguini e della malaria. Bull. Ist. sieroterap. Milano, 36, 206.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L. (1967) Population structure and human evolution. Proc. R. Soc. B, 164, 362.Google Scholar
Ceppellini, R. (1955) Discussion of polymorphism in man. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 20, 252.Google Scholar
Chakravarti, M.R. & Vogel, F. (1966) ABO blood groups and smallpox in a rural population of West Bengal (India). Wld Hlth Org. HG/66.1.Google Scholar
Chung, C.S. & Morton, N.E. (1961) Selection at the ABO locus Am. J. hum. Genet. 13, 9.Google Scholar
Clarke, C.A. (1968) The prevention of Rh-haemolytic disease. In The Scientific Basis of Medicine, Annual Reviews. Athlone Press, London.Google Scholar
Devakul, K., Garby, L. & Harinasuta, T. (1966) Erythrocyte destruction in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: effects of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 60, 432.Google Scholar
Downie, A.W., Meiklejohn, G., St. Vincent, L., Rao, A.R., Sundra Baku, B.V. & Kempe, C.H. (1965) Smallpox frequency and severity in relation to A, B and O blood groups. Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 33, 623.Google Scholar
Edington, G.M. & Watson-Williams, E.J. (1965) Sickling, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and malaria in Western Nigeria. In Abnormal Haemoglobins in Africa. Ed. Jonxis, J.H.P.. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
Edwards, J.H. (1965) The meaning of the associations between blood groups and disease. Ann. hum. Genet. 29, 151.Google Scholar
Fenner, F. & Ratcliffe, F.N. (1965) Myxomatosis. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Fessas, Ph. (1965) Discussion of haemoglobin variants and malaria. In Abnormal Haemoglobins in Africa. Ed. Jonxis, J.H.P.. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
Field, J.W. (1949) Blood examination and prognosis in acute falciparum malaria. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 43, 33.Google Scholar
Fisher, R.A. (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Flatz, G., Pik, C. & Sringam, S. (1965) Haemoglobin E and β-thalassaemia, their distribution in Thailand. Ann. hum. Genet. 29, 151.Google Scholar
Ford, E.B. (1945) Genetics for Medical Students. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
Ford, E.B. (1967) Genetic polymorphism. Proc. R. Soc. B, 164, 350.Google Scholar
Fullerton, W.T., Hendrickse, J.P.De, V. & Watson-Williams, E.J. (1965) Haemoglobin SC disease in pregnancy—a review of 190 cases. In Abnormal Haemoglobins in Africa. Ed. Jonxis, J.H.P.. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
Gilles, H.M., Fletcher, K.A., Hendrickse, R., Lindner, S., Reddy, J. & Allan, N. (1967) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, sickling and malaria in African children in South-Western Nigeria. Lancet, i, 138.Google Scholar
Gilmour, D.G. (1962) Blood groups in chickens. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 97, 166.Google Scholar
Gorman, J.G. (1964) Selection against the Rh-negative gene by malaria. Nature, Lond. 202, 676.Google Scholar
Haldane, J.B.S. (1942) Selection against heterozygosis in man. Ann. Eugen., Lond. 11, 333.Google Scholar
Haldane, J.B.S. (1949) Disease and evolution. La Ricerca Sci. 19 (Suppl.), 68.Google Scholar
Haldane, J.B.S. & Jayakar, S.D. (1963) The solution of some equations occurring in population genetics. J. Genet. 58, 291.Google Scholar
Haldane, J.B.S. & Jayakar, S.D. (1964) Equilibria under natural selection at a sex-linked locus. J. Genet. 59, 29.Google Scholar
Harris, R., Harrison, G.A. & Rondle, C.J.M. (1962) Vaccinia and human blood-group A substances. Lancet, i, 622.Google Scholar
Hendrickse, R.G. (1968) Paper presented at Eighth International Congresses of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Teheran.Google Scholar
Hunt, J.A. & Ingram, V.M. (1959) The genetical control of protein structure: the abnormal human haemoglobins. In Ciba Foundation Symposium on Biochemistry of Human Genetics. Ed. Wolstenholme, G.E.W. & O'Connor, C.M.. Churchill, London.Google Scholar
Jenkin, C.R. (1963) Heterophile antigens and their significance in host-parasite relationship. Adv. Immunol. 3, 351.Google Scholar
Kaplan, M.H. (1964) Immunological cross-reaction between group A streptococcal cells and mammalian tissues: a possible relationship to induction of autoimmunity and rheumatic fever. In The Streptococcus, Rheumatic Fever and Glomerulonephritis. Ed. Williams, J.W. Uhr. & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
Kempe, C.H., Berge, T.O. & England, B. (1956) Hyperimmune vaccinal gamma globulin; source, evaluation and use in prophylaxis and therapy. Pediatrics, 18, 177.Google Scholar
Kimura, M. (1956) Rules for testing stability of a selective polymorphism. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 42, 336.Google Scholar
Kimura, M. & Crow, J.F. (1964) The number of alleles that can be maintained in a finite population. Genetics, 49, 725.Google Scholar
Kruatrachue, M. (1968) Paper presented at Eighth International Congresses of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Teheran.Google Scholar
Levene, H. & Rosenfield, R.E. (1961) ABO incompatibility. Progr. med. Genet. 1, 120.Google Scholar
Li, C.C. (1955) Population Genetics. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
Lie-Injo, Luan Eng (1964) Haemoglobinopathies in East Asia. Ann. hum. Genet. 28, 101.Google Scholar
Livingstone, F.B. (1967) Abnormal Hemoglobins in Human Populations. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
Lüderitz, O., Staub, A.M. & Westphol, O. (1966) Immunochemistry of the O and R antigens of Salmonella and related Enterobacteriaceae. Bad. Rev. 30, 192.Google Scholar
Mcdevitt, H.O. & Tyan, M.L. (1968) Genetic control of the antibody response in inbred mice: transfer of response by spleen cells and linkage to the major histocompatibility (H-2) locus. J. exp. Med. 128, 1.Google Scholar
Mcdonald, J.C. & Zuckerman, A.J. (1962) ABO blood groups and acute respiratory virus disease. Br. med. J. ii, 89.Google Scholar
Mandel, S.P.H. (1959) The stability of a multiple allelic system. Heredity, 13, 289.Google Scholar
Morgan, W.T.J. (1964) Some aspects of immunological specificity in terms of carbohydrate structure. Bull. Soc. chim. Biol. 46, 1627.Google Scholar
Morton, J.R., Gilmour, D.G., Mcdermid, E.M. & Ogden, A.L. (1965) Association of blood group and protein polymorphisms with embryonic mortality in the chicken. Genetics, 51, 97.Google Scholar
Morton, N.E. & Chung, C.S. (1959) Are the MN blood groups maintained by selection? Am. J. hum. Genet. 11, 237.Google Scholar
Motulsky, A.G. (1960) Metabolic polymorphisms and the role of infectious diseases in human evolution. Hum. Biol. 32, 28.Google Scholar
Parsons, P.A. (1961) The initial progress of new genes with viability differences between the sexes with sex linkage. Heredity, 16, 103.Google Scholar
Peritz, E. (1967) A statistical study of intrauterine selection factors related to the ABO system. Ann. hum. Genet. 30, 259.Google Scholar
Pettenkofer, H.J., Slös, B., Helmbold, W. & Vogel, F. (1962) Alleged causes of the presentday distribution of the blood groups. Nature, Lond. 193, 445.Google Scholar
Plato, C.C., Rucknagel, D.L. & Gershowitz, H. (1964) Studies on the distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, thalassaemia and other genetic traits in the coastal and mountain villages of Cyprus. Am. J. hum. Genet. 16, 267.Google Scholar
Quie, P.G. & Wannamaker, L.W. (1960) An unusual staphylococcal product and its host interactions. Univ. Minn. med. Bull. 32, 125.Google Scholar
Reed, T.E. (1960) Polymorphism and natural selection in blood groups. In Genetic Polymorphisms and Geographic Variations in Disease. US Public Health Service, Washington.Google Scholar
Roberts, J.A.F. (1959) Some associations between blood groups and disease. Br. med. Bull. 15, 129.Google Scholar
Rowley, D. & Jenkin, C.R. (1962) Antigenic cross-reaction between host and parasite. Nature, Lond. 193, 151.Google Scholar
Springer, G.F. & Wiener, A.S. (1962) Alleged causes of the present-day world distribution of the blood groups. Nature, Lond. 193, 444.Google Scholar
Stamatoyannopoulos, G. & Fessas, Ph. (1964) Thalassaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sickling and malarial endemicity in Greece; a study of five areas. Br. med. J. i, 875.Google Scholar
Turner, J.R.G. & Williamson, M.H. (1968) Population size, natural selection and the genetic load. Nature, Lond. 218, 700.Google Scholar
Vandepitte, J. & Delaisse, J. (1957) Sicklémie et paludisme. Ann. Soc. belg. Méd. trop. 37, 703.Google Scholar
Vandepitte, J., Zuelzer, W.W., Neel, J.V. & Colaert, J. (1955) Evidence concerning the inadequacy of mutation as an explanation of the sickle-cell gene in the Belgian Congo. Blood, 10, 341.Google Scholar
Vogel, F. (1965) Blood groups and natural selection. Proc. 10th Congr. int. Soc. Blood Transf., Stockholm, p. 268.Google Scholar
Vogel, F., Pettenkofer, H.J. & Helmbold, W. (1960) Über die Populationsgenetik der ABO-Blutgruppen. 2 Mitteilung: Genhäufigkeit und epidemische Erkrankungen. Acta genet. 10, 267.Google Scholar
Wiener, A.S. (1942) The Rh factor and racial origins. Science, N. Y. 96, 407.Google Scholar
Workman, P.L., Blumberg, B.S. & Cooper, A.J. (1963) Selection, gene migration and polymorphic stability in a U.S. White and Negro population. Am. J. hum. Genet. 15, 429.Google Scholar
Worlledge, S., Luzzatto, L., Ogiemidia, S.E., Luzzatto, P. & Edington, G.M. (1968) Rhesus immunization in Nigeria. Vox Sang. 14, 202.Google Scholar