Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-jlrq2 Total loading time: 0.485 Render date: 2022-11-28T19:46:14.849Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

DISCRIMINATION-RELATED STRESS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS IN OREGON, US

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 February 2010

HEATHER H. McCLURE
Affiliation:
Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, OR, USA Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
CHARLES R. MARTINEZ Jr
Affiliation:
Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, OR, USA
J. JOSH SNODGRASS
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
J. MARK EDDY
Affiliation:
Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene, OR, USA
ROBERTO A. JIMÉNEZ
Affiliation:
Farmworker Housing Development Corporation, Woodburn, OR, USA
LAURA E. ISIORDIA
Affiliation:
Farmworker Housing Development Corporation, Woodburn, OR, USA
THOMAS W. McDADE
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA

Summary

Perceived discrimination has been linked to poor health outcomes among ethnic and racial minorities in the United States, though the relationship of discrimination-related stress to immigrant health is not well understood. This article reports findings from a preliminary study that examined blood pressure and Epstein-Barr virus antibody levels in relation to self-reported indicators of stress, acculturation and social support among 79 adult immigrant Latino farm workers in Oregon, US. Findings show that increases in discrimination-related stress predicted elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Epstein-Barr virus antibody levels among male participants. Though female participants reported similar levels of discrimination stress, this perceived stress was not reflected in biological measures. Among women, greater English language engagement was linked to higher SBP, and more years in the US was associated with higher diastolic blood pressure. Study results suggest that male and female immigrants' physiological responses to stress may be influenced in distinctive ways by processes of adjustment to life in the US. If replicated, the finding that discrimination stress predicts elevated SBP may have clinical and public health implications given that elevated SBP is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Affleck, G., Urrows, S., Tennen, H., Higgins, P., Pav, D. & Aloisi, R. (1997) A dual pathway model of daily stressors effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 19, 161170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alderete, E., Vega, W. A., Kolody, B. & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (1999) Depressive symptomatology: Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors among Mexican American migrant farm workers in California. Journal of Community Psychology 27(4), 457471.3.0.CO;2-D>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, J. W. (1998) Acculturation and health: Theory and research. In Kazarian, S. S. & Evans, D. R. (eds) Cultural Clinical Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 3957.Google Scholar
Black, H. R. (1999) The paradigm has shifted, to systolic blood pressure. Hypertension 34(3), 386387.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boeckner, L. S., Pullen, C. H., Walker, S. N. & Hageman, P. A. (2006) Differences in eating and activity behaviors, health history, and biomarkers among normal-weight, overweight, and-obese rural Midwestern Hispanic women. Journal of the American Diatetic Association 106(11), 18701874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bongard, S., Pogge, S. F., Arslaner, H., Rohrmann, S. & Hodapp, V. (2002) Acculturation and cardiovascular reactivity of second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 53, 795803.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brondolo, E., Brady, N., Pencille, M., Betty, D. & Contrada, R. J. (2009a) Coping with racism: A selective review of the literature and a theoretical and methodological critique. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 32(1), 6488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brondolo, E., Gallo, L. C. & Myers, H. F. (2009b) Race, racism, and health: Disparities, mechanisms, and interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 32, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brondolo, E., Libby, D. J., Denton, E., Thompson, S., Beatty, D. L., Schwartz, J. et al. (2008) Racism and ambulatory blood pressure in a community sample. Psychosomatic Medicine 70, 4956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, C., Matthews, K. A., Bromberger, J. T. & Chang, Y. (2006) The relation between perceived unfair treatment and blood pressure in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women. American Journal of Epidemiology 164, 257262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cabassa, L. J. (2003) Measuring acculturation: Where we are and where we need to go. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 25, 127146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Crawford, L. E., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., Kowalewski, R. B. et al. (2002) Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine 64, 407417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardarelli, R., Cardarelli, K. M. & Chiapa, A. L. (2007) The modifying effects of education and income on Hispanics reporting perceived discrimination. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 29(3), 401407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter-Pokras, O. & Bethune, L. (2009) Defining and measuring acculturation: A systematic review of public health studies with Hispanic populations in the United States. A commentary on Thomson and Hoffman-Goetz. Social Science & Medicine 69, 992995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2007) Behavioral risk factor surveillance system prevalence data. URL: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BRFSS/race.asp?cat=HC&yr=2007&qkey=880&state=UB (accessed 21st November 2008).Google Scholar
Cervantes, R. C., Padilla, A. M. & Salgado de Snyder, N. (1990) Reliability and validity of the Hispanic Stress Inventory. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 12(1), 7682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Contrada, R. J., Ashmore, R. D., Gary, M. L., Coups, E., Egeth, J. D., Sewell, A. et al. (2001) Measures of ethnicity-related stress: Psychometric properties, ethnic group differences, and associations with well-being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31, 17751820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuellar, I., Arnold, B. & Maldonado, R. (1995) Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 17(3), 275304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Din-Dzietham, R., Nembhard, W. N., Collins, R. & Davis, S. K. (2004) Perceived stress following race-based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. The metro Atlanta heart disease study, 1999–2001. Social Science & Medicine 58, 449461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dominguez, T. P., Strong, E. F., Krieger, N., Gillman, M. W. & Rich-Edwards, J. W. (2009) Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women. Social Science & Medicine DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.03.022.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dressler, W. W. (1990) Lifestyle, stress, and blood pressure in a Southern black community. Psychosomatic Medicine 52, 182198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dressler, W. W. & Bindon, J. R. (2000) The health consequences of cultural consonance: Cultural dimensions of lifestyle, social support, and arterial blood pressure in an African American community. American Anthropologist 102(2), 244260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dressler, W. W., Oths, K. S. & Gravlee, C. C. (2005) Race and ethnicity in public health research: Models to explain health disparities. Annual Review of Anthropology 34, 231252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eccleston, C. P. & Major, B. N. (2006) Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: The role of group identification and appraisals. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 9(2), 147162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escobar, J. I. & Vega, W. A. (2000) Mental health and immigration's AAAs: Where are we and where do we go from here? Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 188(11), 736740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farquhar, S., Samples, J., Ventura, S., Davis, S., Abernathy, M., McCauley, L. et al. (2008) Promoting the occupational health of indigenous farm workers. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health 10(3), 269280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finch, B. K., Boardman, J. D., Kolody, B. & Vega, W. A. (2000) Contextual effects of acculturation on perinatal substance exposure among immigrant and native-born Latinas. Social Science Quarterly 81, 421438.Google ScholarPubMed
Finch, B. K., Hummer, R. A., Kolody, B. & Vega, W. A. (2001) The role of discrimination and acculturative stress in the physical health of Mexican-origin adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 23, 399429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finch, B. K. & Vega, W. A. (2003) Acculturation stress, social support, and self-rated health among Latinos in California. Journal of Immigrant Health 5(3), 109117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Bachen, E. A., Pasch, L. A. & de Groat, C. L. (2008) Perceived discrimination, perceived stress, and mental and physical health among Mexican-origin adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 30(4), 401424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geary, D. & Flinn, M. (2002) Sex differences in behavioral and hormonal response to social threat: Commentary on Taylor et al. Psychological Reviews 109, 745750.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gee, G. C., Ryan, A., Laflamme, D. J. & Holt, J. (2006) Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: The added dimension of immigration. American Journal of Public Health 96(10), 18211828.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Speicher, C. E. & Holliday, J. E. (1985) Stress, loneliness, and changes in herpesvirus latency. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8, 249260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glaser, R., Pearson, G. R., Jones, J. F., Hillhouse, J., Kennedy, S., Mao, H. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1991) Stress-induced activation of Epstein-Barr virus. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 5, 219232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gravlee, C. C., Dressler, W. W. & Bernard, H. R. (2005) Skin color, social classification, and blood pressure in southeastern Puerto Rico. American Journal of Public Health 95(12), 21912197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gustafsson, P. E., Gustafsson, P. A. & Nelson, N. (2006) Cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in preadolescent children. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress 22(1), 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanna, J. M. (1998) Migration and acculturation among Samoans: Some sources of stress and support. Social Science & Medicine 46, 13251336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harachi, T. W., Catalano, R. F. & Hawkins, J. D. (1997) Effective recruitment for parenting programs within ethnic minority communities. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 14(1), 2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrell, J. P., Hall, S. & Taliaferro, J. (2003) Physiological responses to racism and discrimination: An assessment of the evidence. American Journal of Public Health 93, 243248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, G. G., Stormer, A., Herman, D. R. & Winham, D. M. (2003) Development of a Spanish-language version of the U.S. household food security survey module. Journal of Nutrition 133, 11921197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawkley, L. C., Burleson, M. H., Berntson, G. G. & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003) Loneliness in everyday life: Cardiovascular activity, psychosocial context, and health behaviors. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 85, 105120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henle, W. & Henle, G. (1982) Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. In Glaser, R. & Gottleib-Stematsky, T. (eds) Human Herpesvirus Infections: Clinical Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 151162.Google Scholar
Ho, S. Y., Lam, T. H. & Janus, E. D. (2003) Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices. Annals of Epidemiology 13, 683691.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodson, G. & Esses, V. M. (2002) Distancing oneself from negative attributes and the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38, 500507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Institute of Medicine (2002) Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
James, K., Lovato, C. & Khoo, G. (1994) Social identity correlates of minority workers' health. Academy of Management Journal 37(2), 383396.Google Scholar
Jones, J. F. & Straus, S. E. (1987) Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Annual Review of Medicine 38, 195209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jurkowski, J. M., & Johnson, T. P. (2005) Acculturation and cardiovascular disease screening practices among Mexican Americans living in Chicago. Ethnicity & Disease 15(3), 411417.Google ScholarPubMed
Kannel, W. B., Wolf, P. A., Verter, J. & McNamara, P. M. (1996) Epidemiologic assessment of the role of blood pressure in stroke: The Framingham Study, 1970. Journal of the American Medical Association 276(15), 12691278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, N. M. (2005) Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension (9th edition). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D. & Williams, D. R. (1999) The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 40(3), 208230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., Shuttleworth, E. C., Dyer, C. S., Ogrocki, P. & Speicher, C. E. (1987) Chronic stress and immunity in family caregivers of Alzheimer's disease victims. Psychosomatic Medicine 49, 523535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., Cacioppo, J. T. & Glaser, R. (1994) Stressful personal relationships: Immune and endocrine function. In Glaser, R. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (eds) Handbook of Human Stress and Immunity. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 321329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., Chee, M. A., Newton, T., Cacioppo, J. T., Mao, H. Y. & Glaser, R. (1993). Negative behavior during marital conflict is associated with immunological down-regulation. Psychosomatic Medicine 55, 395409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., Malarkey, W. B., Mercado, A. M. & Glaser, R. (1995) Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. Lancet 346, 11941196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Ricker, D., George, J., Messick, G., Speicher, C. E., Garner, W. & Glaser, R. (1984) Urinary cortisol levels, cellular immunocompetency, and loneliness in psychiatric inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine 46, 1523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Hartman, C., Stoddard, A. M., Quinn, M. M. et al. (2008) The inverse hazard law: Blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white and Latino workers. Social Science & Medicine 67, 19701981.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krieger, N. & Sidney, S. (1996) Racial discrimination and blood pressure: The CARDIA study of young black and white adults. American Journal of Public Health 86, 13701378.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krieger, N., Sidney, S. & Coakley, E. (1999) Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: Implications for public health research. American Journal of Public Health 88, 13081313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krieger, N., Smith, K., Naishadham, D., Hartman, C. & Barbeau, E. M. (2005) Experiences of discrimination: Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science & Medicine 61, 15761596.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kunz-Ebrecht, S., Kirschbaum, C., Marmot, M. & Steptoe, A. (2004) Differences in cortisol awakening response on work days and weekends in women and men from the Whitehall II cohort. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29, 516528.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Landrine, H., Klonoff, E. A., Corral, I., Fernandez, S. & Roesch, S. (2006) Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 29, 7994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lara, M., Gamboa, C., Kahramanian, M. I., Morales, L. S. & Hayes Bautista, D. E. (2005) Acculturation and Latino health in the United Status: A review of the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annual Review of Public Health 26, 367397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenfant, C., Chobanian, A. V., Jones, D. W. & Roccella, E. J. (2003) Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7): Resetting the hypertension sails. Hypertension 42, 12061252.Google Scholar
Libby, P., Ridker, P. M. & Maseri, A. (2002) Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation 105, 11351143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lohman, T. G., Roche, A. F. & Martorell, R. (eds) (1988) Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign.Google Scholar
Lupien, S., King, S., Meaney, M. & McEwen, B. (2000) Child's stress hormone levels correlate with mother's socioeconomic status and depressive state. Biological Psychiatry 48, 976980.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCauley, L. A. (2005) Immigrant workers in the United States: Recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal 53, 313319.Google ScholarPubMed
McDade, T. W. (2001) Lifestyle incongruity, social integration, and immune function in Samoan adolescents. Social Science & Medicine 53, 13511362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDade, T. W. (2007) Measuring immune function: Markers of cell-mediated immunity and inflammation in dried blood spots. In Ice, G. H. & James, G. D. (eds) Measuring Stress in Humans: A Practical Guide for the Field. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
McDade, T. W., Stallings, J. F., Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Burleson, M., Cacioppo, J. T. et al. (2000a) Epstein-Barr Virus antibodies in whole blood spots: A minimally invasive method for assessing an aspect of cell-mediated immunity. Psychosomatic Medicine 62, 560567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDade, T. W., Stallings, J. F. & Worthman, C. M. (2000b) Culture change and stress in Western Samoan youth: Methodological issues in the cross-cultural study of stress and immune function. American Journal of Human Biology 12, 792802.3.0.CO;2-F>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDade, T. W., Williams, S. & Snodgrass, J. J. (2007) What a drop can do: Dried blood spots as a minimally invasive method for integrating biomarkers into population-based research. Demography 44(4), 899925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDade, T. W. & Worthman, C. M. (2004) Socialization ambiguity in Samoan adolescents: a model for human development and stress in the context of culture change. Journal of Research on Adolescence 14, 4972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainous, A. G. III, Majeed, A., Koopman, R. J., Baker, R., Everett, C. J., Tilley, B. C. & Diaz, V. A. (2006) Acculturation and diabetes among Hispanics: Evidence from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Reports 121(1), 6066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marín, G. & Marín, B. V. (1991) Research with Hispanic Populations. Sage, Newbury Park, CA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marmot, M. (2004) The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects our Health and Longevity. Henry Holt & Co., New York.Google Scholar
Martinez, C. R. Jr (2006) Effects of differential family acculturation on Latino adolescent substance use. Family Relations 55(3), 306317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinez, C. R. Jr, McClure, H. H. & Eddy, J. M. (2008) Language brokering contexts and behavioral and emotional adjustment among Latino parents and adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence 29(1), 7198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marucha, P. T., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. & Favagchi, M. (1998) Mucosal wound healing is impaired by examination stress. Psychosomatic Medicine 60, 362365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, P. (2004) Annual income, hourly wages, and identity among Mexican-Americans and other Latinos. Industrial Relations 43(4), 817834.Google Scholar
Matheson, K., Jorden, S. & Anisman, H. (2008) Relations between trauma experiences and psychological, physical and neuroendocrine functioning among Somali refugees: Mediating role of coping with acculturation stressors. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 10 291304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) (2006) National Health Interview Survey. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhis/quest_data_related_1997_forward.htmGoogle Scholar
National Institutes of Health (2000) The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
Pacák, K. & Palkovits, M. (2001) Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: Implications for stress-related disorders. Endocrine Reviews 22(4), 502548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Panter-Brick, C., Eggerman, M., Mojadidi, A. & McDade, T. W. (2008) Social stressors, mental health, and physiological stress in an urban elite of young Afghans in Kabul. American Journal of Human Biology 20, 627641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pantin, H., Schwartz, S. J., Coatsworth, J. D., Sullivan, S., Briones, E. & Szapocznik, J. (2007) Familias Unidas: A systemic, parent-centered approach to preventing problem behavior in Hispanic adolescents. In Tolan, P., Szapocznik, J. & Sambrano, S. (eds) Preventing Youth Substance Abuse: Science-Based Programs for Children and Adolescents. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 211238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paradies, Y. C. (2006) Defining, conceptualizing and characterizing racism in health research. Critical Public Health 16(2), 143157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G. & Mullan, J. T. (1981) The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 22, 337353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez, D. J., Fortuna, L. & Alegría, M. (2008) Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among U.S. Latinos. Journal of Community Psychology 36(4), 421433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pew Hispanic Center (2007) 2007 National Survey of Latinos: As Illegal Immigration Issue Heats Up, Hispanics Feel a Chill. Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Portes, A. & Cobas, J. A. (1980) Assimilation or consciousness: Perceptions of U.S. society among recent Latin American immigrants to the United States. Social Forces 59(1), 200224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Portes, A. & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001) Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Ross, R. (1999) Atherosclerosis: An inflammatory disease. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 115126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumbaut, R. G. (2008) Reaping what you sow: Immigration, youth, and reactive ethnicity. Applied Developmental Science 12(2), 108111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryan, A. M., Gee, G. C. & Laflamme, D. F. (2006) The association between self-reported discrimination, physical health and blood pressure: Findings from African Americans, Black immigrants, and Latino immigrants in New Hampshire. American Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 17(2), 116132.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sabban, E. & Kvetnansky, R. (2001) Stress-triggered activation of gene expression in catecholaminergic systems: Dynamics of transcriptional events. Trends in Neurosciences 24, 9198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sabogal, F., Marín, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., Marín, B. V. & Pérez-Stable, E. J. (1987) Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 9(4), 397412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H. & Kirschbaum, C. (2003) Dissociation between reactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system to repeated psychosocial stress. Psychosomatic Medicine 65(3), 450460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schulz, A. J., Israel, B. A., Zenk, S. N., Parker, E. A., Lichtenstein, R., Shellman-Weir, S. & Klem, A. B. L. (2006) Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit's Eastside. Social Science & Medicine 62, 510522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherwood, A., Dolan, C. A. & Light, K. C. (1990) Hemodynamics of blood pressure responses during active and passive coping. Psychophysiology 27(6), 656668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Snodgrass, J. J., Sorensen, M. V., Tarskaia, L. A. & Leonard, W. R. (2007) Adaptive dimensions of health research among indigenous Siberians. American Journal of Human Biology 19, 165180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sorensen, M. V., Snodgrass, J. J., Leonard, W. R., McDade, T. W., Tarskaya, L. A., Ivanov, K. I. et al. (2009) Lifestyle incongruity, stress and immune function in indigenous Siberians: The health impacts of rapid social and economic change. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(1), 6269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steffen, P. R. (2006) The cultural gradient: culture moderates the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and ambulatory blood pressure. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 29(6), 501510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steffen, P. R., Smith, T. B., Larson, M. & Butler, L. (2006) Acculturation to western society as a risk factor for high blood pressure: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine 68(3), 386397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephen, L. (2007) Transborder Lives: Indigenous Oaxacans in Mexico, California, and Oregon. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steptoe, A., Kunz-Ebrecht, S., Owen, N., Feldman, P., Willemsen, G., Kirschbaum, C. & Marmot, M. (2003) Socioeconomic status and stress-related biological responses over the working day. Psychosomatic Medicine 65, 461470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stuber, J., Galea, S., Ahern, J., Blaney, S. & Fuller, C. (2003) The association between multiple domains of discrimination and self-assessed health: A multilevel analysis of Latinos and blacks in four low-income New York City neighborhoods. Health Service Research 38(6 Part 2), 17351759.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sweet, E., McDade, T. W., Kiefe, C. I. & Liu, K. (2007) Relationships between skin color, income, and blood pressure among African Americans in the CARDIA Study. American Journal of Public Health 97, 22532259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szalacha, L. A., Erkut, S., Garcia Coll, C., Fields, J. P., Alarcon, L. & Ceder, I. (2003) Perceived discrimination and resilience. In Luthar, S. S. (ed.) Resilience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in the Context of Childhood Adversities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 414435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tafet, G. & Bernardini, R. (2003) Psychoneuroendocrinological links between chronic stress and depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 27, 893903.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanumihardjo, S. A., Anderson, C., Kaufer-Horwitz, M., Bode, L., Emenaker, N. J., Haqq, A. M. et al. (2007) Poverty, obesity, and malnutrition: An international perspective recognizing the paradox. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(11), 19661972.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, S., Klein, L., Lewis, B., Gruenewald, T., Gurung, R. & Updegraff, J. (2000) Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review 107, 411429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomson, M. D. & Hoffman-Goetz, L. (2009a) Defining and measuring acculturation: A systematic review of public health studies with Hispanic populations in the United States. Social Science & Medicine 69, 983991.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomson, M. D. & Hoffman-Goetz, L. (2009b) Defining and measuring acculturation in public health: A response to Carter-Pokras and Bethune. Social Science & Medicine 69, 9991001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomaka, J., Blascovich, J., Kelsey, R. M. & Leitten, C. L. (1993) Subjective, physiological, and behavioral effects of threat and challenge appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(2), 248260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
US Census Bureau (2008a) U.S. Hispanic Population Surpasses 45 Million Now 15% of Total. US Census Bureau News. Released: Thursday, 1st May 2008. URL: http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/011910.htmlGoogle Scholar
US Census Bureau (2008b) Historical Income Tables – Households: Table h-8. Median Household Income by State: 1984 to 2007. Current population survey, annual social and economic supplements. URL: http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/histinc/h08.html (accessed 20th November 2008).Google Scholar
US Department of Agriculture (2005) Household Food Security in the United States. 2004/ERR-11. USDA, Economic Research Service, October.Google Scholar
Vega, W. A. & Gil, A. G. (1999) A model for explaining drug use behavior among Hispanic adolescents. Drugs & Society 14(1–2), 5774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villarejo, D. & McCurdy, S. A. (2008) The California agricultural workers health survey. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 14(2), 135146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Viruell-Fuentes, E. A. (2007) Beyond acculturation: Immigration, discrimination, and health research among Mexicans in the United States. Social Science & Medicine 65, 15241535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vozoris, N. T. & Tarasuk, V. S. (2003) Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health. Journal of Nutrition 133, 120126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wadsworth, M. E. & Achenbach, T. M. (2005) Explaining the link between low socioeconomic strata and psychopathology: Testing two mechanisms of the social causation hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73(6), 11461153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wadsworth, M. E., Raviv, T., Reinhard, C., Wolff, B., Santiago, C. D. & Einhorn, L. (2008) An indirect effects model of the association between poverty and child functioning: The role of children's poverty-related stress. Journal of Loss and Trauma 13, 156185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, C. & Latkin, C. A. (2007) Neighborhood socioeconomic status, personal network attitudes, and use of heroin and cocaine. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32(6S), S203210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, D. R. (2008) The health of men: Structured inequalities and opportunities. American Journal of Public Health 98(9 Supplement), S150157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, D. R. & Jackson, P. B. (2005) Social sources of racial disparities in health. Social Sources 24, 325334.Google ScholarPubMed
Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W. & Jackson, J. S. (2003) Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health 98 (9 Supplement), S2937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

DISCRIMINATION-RELATED STRESS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS IN OREGON, US
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

DISCRIMINATION-RELATED STRESS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS IN OREGON, US
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

DISCRIMINATION-RELATED STRESS, BLOOD PRESSURE AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG LATIN AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS IN OREGON, US
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *