Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.379 Render date: 2022-08-16T02:44:15.014Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Assessment of non-communicable disease related lifestyle risk factors among adult population in Bangladesh

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 June 2021

Md. Belal Hossain
Affiliation:
James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Mahmood Parvez
Affiliation:
James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Mir Raihanul Islam
Affiliation:
James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Hala Evans
Affiliation:
School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, UK
Sabuj Kanti Mistry*
Affiliation:
James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
*
*Corresponding author. Email: smitra411@gmail.com

Abstract

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which can largely be prevented by controlling avoidable lifestyle-related risk factors, are rapidly penetrating the entire world, including developing countries. The present study aimed to assess NCD lifestyle risk factors among the adult population in Bangladesh. The data used in the study were collected as part of a population-based cross-sectional survey covering rural and urban areas of Bangladesh conducted in 2015–16 (N=11,982 adults aged ≥35 years). The lifestyle factors considered were diet (daily fruit and vegetable consumption and extra salt intake with meals), sleeping patterns, smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, and physical activity. The study found that approximately 18.5% of participants had a non-daily consumption of fruit or vegetables, 46.6% used extra salt with their meals, 11.8% reported sleeping <7 hours daily, 25.7% smoked tobacco, 60.9% used smokeless tobacco and 69.7% were less physically active. The prevalence of improper lifestyle practices relevant to NCDs, such as an inadequate diet, poor sleeping pattern, tobacco consumption, and low physical activity, was significantly higher among older adults, women, the uneducated, the unemployed, urban dwellers, and people from rich households. The study found that NCD-related lifestyle characteristics were poorly compliant with standard guidelines among many adult populations in Bangladesh. The findings can inform preventative strategies to control the overwhelming NCD burden in Bangladesh, such as the promotion of physical exercise, healthy eating, and the cessation of the use of tobacco products.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agresti, A (2003) Building and applying logistic regression models. In Agresti, A (ed.) Categorical Data Analysis, 2nd edn, Vol. 482. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
Ahmed, SM, Alam, BB, Anwar, I, Begum, T, Haque, R, Khan, JA et al. (2015) Bangladesh Health System Review . Health Systems in Transition, Vol. 5. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila.Google Scholar
Alam, D, Robinson, H, Kanungo, A, Hossain, MD and Hassan, M (2013) Health systems preparedness for responding to the growing burden of non-communicable disease – a case study of Bangladesh. Health Policy and Health Finance Knowledge Hub. Working Paper No. 25. The Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
Alberti, KGMM, Zimmet, P and Shaw, J (2005) The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. The Lancet 366(9491), 10591062.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amarasinghe, A and D’Souza, G (2012) Individual, social, economic, and environmental model: a paradigm shift for obesity prevention. International Scholarly Research Notices 2012, 10.Google Scholar
Barua, UK, Saha, SK, Ghosh, DK and Ruble, MMK (2013) Epidemiological study on bronchial asthma at Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka. Journal of Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College 5(2), 7780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basnet, S, Merikanto, I, Lahti, T, Männistö, S, Laatikainen, T, Vartiainen, E and Partonen, T (2016) Associations of common chronic non-communicable diseases and medical conditions with sleep-related problems in a population-based health examination study. Sleep Science 9(3), 249254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, JE, Stevens, GA, Mathers, CD, Bonita, R, Rehm, J, Kruk, ME et al. (2018) NCD countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4. The Lancet 392(10152), 10721088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bermejo, LM, Aparicio, A, Andrés, P, López-Sobaler, AM and Ortega, RM (2007) The influence of fruit and vegetable intake on the nutritional status and plasma homocysteine levels of institutionalised elderly people. Public Health Nutrition 10(3), 266272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biswas, T, Islam, MS, Linton, N and Rawal, LB (2016) Socio-economic inequality of chronic non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. PloS One 11(11), e0167140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biswas, T, Pervin, S, Tanim, MIA, Niessen, L and Islam, A (2017) Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis. BMC Public Health 17, 582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittencourt, L and Scarinci, IC (2014) Is there a role for community health workers in tobacco cessation programs? Perceptions of administrators and health care professionals. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(5), 626631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloom, DE, Cafiero, E, Jané-Llopis, E, Abrahams-Gessel, S, Bloom, LR, Fathima, S et al. (2011) The Global Economic Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases. World Economic Forum and Harvard School of Public Health. URL: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Harvard_HE_GlobalEconomicBurdenNonCommunicableDiseases_2011.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Boutayeb, A and Boutayeb, S (2005) The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. International Journal for Equity in Health 4(1), 2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chowdhury, MZI, Haque, MA, Farhana, Z, Anik, AM, Chowdhury, AH, Haque, SM et al. (2018) Prevalence of cardiovascular disease among Bangladeshi adult population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies. Vascular Health and Risk Management 14, 165181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Directorate General of Health Services (2018) Health Bulletin 2018. Bangladesh, Dhaka. URL: https://dghs.gov.bd/index.php/en/home/81-english-root/5058-health-bulletin-2018-draft (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Eldridge, R, McFarlin, D, McFarland, H and Williams, A (2017) Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in DC: evidence and implications. PLoS One 12(7), e0180640.Google Scholar
Food and Agriculture Organization (2021) Food-Based Dietary Guidelines. URL: http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-dietary-guidelines/en/ (accessed 4th April 2021).Google Scholar
Food Planning and Monitoring Unit (2016) IPC Chronic Food Insecurity Situation in 10 Districts of Bangladesh, December 2015–2018/20. Ministry of Food of Bangladesh in collaboration with country IPC Partners, Dhaka. URL: http://www.ipcinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ipcinfo/docs/IPC_Bangladesh_ChronicFI_Situation_20152020_2round-10%20districts.pdf (accessed 27th May 2021).Google Scholar
Glantz, S and Gonzalez, M (2012) Effective tobacco control is key to rapid progress in reduction of non-communicable diseases. The Lancet 379(9822), 12691271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh (2018a) Annual Drug Report, Bangladesh 2018. Dhaka, Bangladesh. URL: http://dnc.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/dnc.portal.gov.bd/annual_reports/d5c18a1b_a5cd_402f_839b_351d5fd39003/Drug Annual Report 2018.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh (2018b) Multi-Sectoral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2018–2025. Bangladesh, Dhaka. URL: http://www.dghs.gov.bd/images/docs/Publicaations/NCDC_multisectoral_action_plan_2018_2025.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Hadi, T (2019) An analysis of water policies and strategies of Bangladesh in the context of climate change. Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development 29(1), 111123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, JN, Moore, S, Harper, SB and Lynch, JW (2009) Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(5), 402409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamid, SA, Ahsan, SM and Begum, A (2014) Disease-specific impoverishment impact of out-of-pocket payments for health care: evidence from rural Bangladesh. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 12(4), 421433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartley, L, Igbinedion, E, Holmes, J, Flowers, N, Thorogood, M, Clarke, A et al. (2013) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4(6), CD009874.Google Scholar
Islam, A and Biswas, T (2014) Health system in Bangladesh: challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Health Research 2(6), 366374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Islam, MA, Akhter, S and Islam, M (2018) Health financing in Bangladesh: why changes in public financial management rules will be important. Health Systems and Reform 4(2), 6568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Islam, MS and Jhora, ST (2012) Physician–patient relationship: the present situation and our responsibilities. Bangladesh Medical Journal 41(1), 5558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khan, JR, Awan, N, Archie, RJ, Sultana, N and Muurlink, O (2020) The association between drinking water salinity and hypertension in coastal Bangladesh. Global Health Journal 4(4), 153158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancaster, T, Stead, L, Silagy, C and Sowden, A (2000) Effectiveness of interventions to help people stop smoking: findings from the Cochrane Library. BMJ 321(7257), 355358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lavie, CJ, Laddu, D, Arena, R, Ortega, FB, Alpert, MA and Kushner, RF (2018) Reprint of: Healthy Weight and Obesity Prevention. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 72(23), 30273052.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lemola, S, Perkinson-Gloor, N, Brand, S, Dewald-Kaufmann, JF and Grob, A (2015) Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44(2), 405418.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mascie-Taylor, N (2012) Is Bangladesh going through an epidemiological and nutritional transition? Collegium Antropologicum 36(4), 11551159.Google ScholarPubMed
Mirelman, AJ, Rose, S, Khan, JAM, Ahmed, S, Peters, DH, Niessen, LW and Trujillo, AJ (2016) The relationship between non-communicable disease occurrence and poverty—evidence from demographic surveillance in Matlab, Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning 31(6), 785792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitra, DK, Mistry, SK, Afsana, K and Rahman, M (2018) Demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle determinants of under-and over-nutrition among Bangladeshi adult population: results from a large cross-sectional study. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 8(3–4), 134142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moniruzzaman, M, Zaman, MM, Islalm, MS, Ahasan, H, Kabir, H and Yasmin, R (2016) Physical activity levels in Bangladeshi adults: results from STEPS survey 2010. Public Health 137, 131138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, CJL and Lopez, AD (1997) Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet 349(9063), 14361442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nahar, Q, Choudhury, S Faruque, Sultana, S and Siddiquee, MA (2013) Dietary Guidelines for Bangladesh. Bangladesh, Dhaka, URL: http://www.fao.org/3/as880e/as880e.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Narayan, KM and Rhodes, EC (2016) Addressing noncommunicable diseases in primary care: the case of type 2 diabetes. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 46(4), 272277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Sleep Foundation (2019) National Sleep Foundation Recommends New Sleep Times. URL: https://www.sleepfoundation.org/press-release/national-sleep-foundation-recommends-new-sleep-times (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
NIPORT and ICF (2020) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017–18. NIPORT, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and ICF, Rockville, MD, USA.Google Scholar
Normand, C, Iftekar, MH, Rahman, SA, Normand, MH and Rahman, SA (2002) Assessment of the Community Clinics: Effects on Service Delivery, Quality and Utilization of Services. Health Systems Development Programme. URL: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08c35ed915d3cfd001236/bang_comm_clinics_web_version.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Noronha, V, Tsomo, U, Jamshed, A, Hai, MA, Wattegama, S, Baral, RP et al. (2012) A fresh look at oncology facts on south central Asia and SAARC countries. South Asian Journal of Cancer 1(1), 1.Google Scholar
Okely, AD, Cotton, WG, Lubans, DR, Morgan, PJ, Puglisi, L, Miller, J et al. (2011) A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 11, 658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penney, S (2009) Dropping the Salt: Practical Steps Countries are Taking to Prevent Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Population-Wide Dietary Salt Reduction. URL: https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2009/DroppingthesaltEN.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Rawal, L, Jubayer, S, Choudhury, SR, Islam, SMS and Abdullah, AS (2021) Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in Bangladesh: a qualitative study. Global Health Research and Policy 6(1), 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rutstein, SO (2015) Steps to Constructing the New DHS Wealth Index. ICF International, Rockville, MD. URL: https://dhsprogram.com/programming/wealth index/Steps_to_constructing_the_new_DHS_Wealth_Index.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
Strong, WB, Malina, RM, Blimkie, CJR, Daniels, SR, Dishman, RK, Gutin, B et al. (2005) Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Journal of Pediatrics 146(6), 732737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutradhar, I, Gupta, RD, Hasan, M, Wazib, A and Sarker, M (2019) Prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Bangladesh: a systematic review. Cureus 11(1), e3970.Google ScholarPubMed
Thomas, DP and Hefler, M (2016) How to reduce adolescent smoking in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet Global Health 4(11), e762e763.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wewers, ME, Shoben, A, Conroy, S, Curry, E, Ferketich, AK, Murray, DM et al. (2016) Effectiveness of two community health worker models of tobacco dependence treatment among community residents of Ohio Appalachia. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 19(12), 14991507.Google Scholar
WHO (2005) Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment. WHO Global Report. URL: https://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/en/ (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2010) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. URL: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240686458_eng.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2011) Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey Bangladesh 2010. URL: http://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2010_STEPS_Report_Bangladesh.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2012) Guideline: Sodium Intake for Adults and Children. URL: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/sodium_intake_printversion.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2014a) Cancer Country Profile 2014: Bangladesh. Department of Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
WHO (2014b) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. URL: https://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-status-report-2014/en/ (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2017) Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Bangladesh Report. URL: https://ntcc.gov.bd/ntcc/uploads/editor/files/GATS Report Final-2017_20 MB.PDF (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2018a) Noncommunicable Diseases: Fact Sheet. URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2018b) Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles 2018. URL: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/274512/9789241514620-eng.pdf (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2019a) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health: Physical Activity and Adults. URL: https://www.who.int/nmh/wha/59/dpas/en/ (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2019b) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health: Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Around the World. URL: https://www.who.int/nmh/wha/59/dpas/en/ (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO (2019c) Salt Reduction. URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/salt-reduction (accessed 29th April 2021).Google Scholar
WHO Expert Consultation (2004) Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. The Lancet 363(9403), 157163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, MM, Choudhury, SR, Ahmed, J, Khandaker, RK, Rouf, MA and Malik, A (2017) Salt intake in an adult population of Bangladesh. Global Heart 12(3), 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zaman, M, Ullah, A, Bhuiyan, M, Karim, M, Moniruzzaman and Rahman, S (2016) Chronic diseases – international noncommunicable disease prevention and control situation in a primary health care setting of Bangladesh: design and baseline findings of an intervention. Chronic Diseases International 3(1), 19.Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Assessment of non-communicable disease related lifestyle risk factors among adult population in Bangladesh
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Assessment of non-communicable disease related lifestyle risk factors among adult population in Bangladesh
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Assessment of non-communicable disease related lifestyle risk factors among adult population in Bangladesh
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *