Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-6g96d Total loading time: 0.504 Render date: 2022-07-03T21:55:26.594Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Autism spectrum disorder in older adults with intellectual disability: a scoping review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 October 2021

E. Maguire*
Affiliation:
Department of Liaison Psychiatry, James Connolly Memorial Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
N. Mulryan
Affiliation:
Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services, St. Vincent’s Centre, Dublin, Ireland Trinity Centre for Ageing and Intellectual Disability (TCAID), Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
F. Sheerin
Affiliation:
Trinity Centre for Ageing and Intellectual Disability (TCAID), Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
P. McCallion
Affiliation:
Trinity Centre for Ageing and Intellectual Disability (TCAID), Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Temple University College of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA
M. McCarron
Affiliation:
Trinity Centre for Ageing and Intellectual Disability (TCAID), Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
*
*Address for correspondence: E. Maguire, Department of Liaison Psychiatry, James Connolly Memorial Hospital, Blanchardstown, Dublin15, Ireland. (Email: Erica.maguire@hse.ie)

Abstract

Introduction:

Ireland has an ageing population of persons with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both (ID/ASD). Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of ASD and its effect on functional outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity or diagnostic issues in an older population with ID. This article reviews the literature on older adults with ID/ASD and identifies opportunities for future research in this population.

Method:

The authors searched the Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases using the search terms using key words: (older adults) AND (ID OR mental retardation OR learning disability) AND (autism OR ASD). After excluding articles for relevance, a scoping review was carried out on the results retrieved.

Results:

Of the 1227 articles retrieved from the literature on ID and autism/ASD in older adults, 85 articles were relevant to an adult population with ID/ASD. The data were collated and are presented covering domains of diagnosis, prevalence, psychiatric comorbidities and functional outcomes.

Conclusions:

Despite increased prevalence in childhood ASD in the last 20 years, there is a lack of research regarding adults, especially older adults, with ASD, up to half of whom will have some level of ID. The existing literature suggests that older adults with ID/ASD may have reduced functional independence, increased psychiatric comorbidity and psychotropic prescribing and more behavioural presentations than the older population generally or those with ID only. There is a need for longitudinal data to be collected on this ageing population so that care and management needs can be met in the future.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The College of Psychiatrists of Ireland

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Arvio, M., & Sillanpää, M. (2003). Prevalence, aetiology and comorbidity of severe and profound intellectual disability in Finland. Journal of intellectual disability research : JIDR, 47(Pt 2), 108–112. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00447.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Axmon, A, Höglund, P, Ahlström, G (2017b). Chronic respiratory disorders and their treatment among older people with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder in comparison with the general population. Healthcare 5, 40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Axmon, A, Kristensson, J, Ahlström, G, Midlöv, P (2017a). Use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepine derivatives, and dementia medication among older people with intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorder and dementia. Research in Developmental Disabilities 62, 5057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bakken, TL, Helverschou, SB, Eilertsen, DE, Heggelund, T, Myrbakk, E, Martinsen, H (2010). Psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults with autism and intellectual disability: a representative study in one county in Norway. Research in Developmental Disabilities 31, 16691677.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnard, L, Muldoon, K, Hasan, R, O'Brien, G, Stewart, M (2008). Profiling executive dysfunction in adults with autism and comorbid learning disability. Autism 12, 125141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S, Wheelwright, S, Skinner, R, Martin, J, Clubley, E (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31, 517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baudewijns, L, Ronsse, E, Verstraete, V, Sabbe, B, Morrens, M, Bertelli, MO (2018). Problem behaviours and major depressive disorder in adults with intellectual disability and autism. Psychiatry Research 270, 769774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beadle-Brown, J, Murphy, G, DiTerlizzi, M (2009). Quality of life for the camberwell cohort. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 22, 380390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergmann, T, Sappok, T, Diefenbacher, A, Dames, S, Heinrich, M, Ziegler, M, Dziobek, I (2015). Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - a newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities 43-44, 123135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berument, SK, Starr, E, Pickles, A, Tomlins, M, Papanikolauou, K, Lord, C, Rutter, M (2005). Pre-linguistic autism diagnostic observation schedule adapted for older individuals with severe to profound mental retardation: a pilot study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35, 821829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhaumik, S, Tyrer, F, Barrett, M, Tin, N, McGrother, CW, Kiani, R (2010). The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 31, 705712.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhaumik, S, Tyrer, F, McGrother, C, Ganghadaran, SK (2008). Psychiatric service use and psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 52, 986995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L, Rubenstein, E (2019). The physical and mental health of middle aged and older adults on the autism spectrum and the impact of intellectual disability. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 63, 3441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boilson, AM, et al. (2016). Operationalisation of the European Protocol for Autism Prevalence (EPAP) for autism spectrum disorder prevalence measurement in Ireland. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 46, 30543067.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brugha, TS, McManus, S, Bankart, J, Scott, F, Purdon, S, Smith, J, Bebbington, P, Jenkins, R, Meltzer, H (2011). Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England. Archives of General Psychiatry 68, 459465.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brugha, TS, Spiers, N, Bankart, J, Cooper, SA, McManus, S, Scott, FJ, Smith, J, Tyrer, F (2016). Epidemiology of autism in adults across age groups and ability levels. The British Journal of Psychiatry 209, 498503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryson, SE, Bradley, EA, Thompson, A, Wainwright, A (2008). Prevalence of autism among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 53, 449459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buck, TR, Viskochil, J, Farley, M, Coon, H, McMahon, WM, Morgan, J, Bilder, DA (2014). Psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44, 30633071.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, EA, O’Dwyer, M, McGlinchey, E, Foran, S, MacGiolla Phadraig, C, Carroll, R, McCallion, P, McCarron, M (2019). Important physical health issues. In Physical Health of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ed. Prasher, V.P., Janicki, M. P.), pp. 2752. Wiley: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassidy, SA, Bradley, L, Bowen, E, Wigham, S, Rodgers, J (2018). Measurement properties of tools used to assess depression in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: a systematic review. Autism Research 11, 738754.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cervantes, PE, Matson, JL (2015). Comorbid symptomology in adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 45, 39613970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chaplin, E, Gilvarry, C, Tsakanikos, E (2011). Recreational substance use patterns and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32, 29812986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, IL, Tsiouris, JA, Flory, MJ, Kim, SY, Freedland, R, Heaney, G, Pettinger, J, Brown, WT (2010). A large scale study of the psychometric characteristics of the IBR modified overt aggression scale: findings and evidence for increased self-destructive behaviors in adult females with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 40, 599609.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collacott, RA, Cooper, SA, Branford, D, McGrother, C (1998). Epidemiology of self-injurious behaviour in adults with learning disabilities. The British Journal of Psychiatry 173, 428432.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, S (1997). Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in elderly compared with younger adults with learning disabilities. British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 375380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, SA, Smiley, E, Allan, LM, Jackson, A, Finlayson, J, Mantry, D, Morrison, J (2009). Adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, incidence and remission of self-injurious behaviour, and related factors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 53, 200216. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2008.01060.x.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, SA, Smiley, E, Morrison, J, Williamson, A, Allan, L (2007). Mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence and associated factors. British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 2735.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, SA, van der Speck, R (2009). Epidemiology of mental ill health in adults with intellectual disabilities. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 22, 431436.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Bildt, A, Systema, S, Kraijer, D, Minderaa, R (2005). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46, 275286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Kuijper, GM, Hoekstra, PJ (2017). Physicians' reasons not to discontinue long-term used off-label antipsychotic drugs in people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 61, 899908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Kuijper, GM, Hoekstra, PJ (2018). An open-label discontinuation trial of long-term, off-label antipsychotic medication in people with intellectual disability: determinants of success and failure. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 58, 14181426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dept. of Health. (2018). Estimating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the Irish population: a review of data sources and epidemiological studies. (https://assets.gov.ie/10707/ce1ca48714424c0ba4bb4c0ae2e510b2.pdf).Google Scholar
de Vaan, G, Vervloed, M, Peters-Scheffer, NC, van Gent, T, Knoors, H, Verhoeven, L (2016). Behavioural assessment of autism spectrum disorders in people with multiple disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 60, 101112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deb, S, Thomas, M, Bright, C (2001). Mental disorder in adults with intellectual disability. I. Prevalence of functional psychiatric illness among a community-based population aged between 16 and 64 years. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 45, 495505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dietz, PM, Rose, CE, McArthur, D, Maenner, M (2020). National and state estimates of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 50, 42584266. DOI 10.1007/s10803-020-04494-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, A, Carew, AM (2015). Annual report of the National Intellectual Disability Database Committee 2015 main findings. (https://www.hrb.ie/fileadmin/publications_files/NIDD_2015_Annual_Report_web.pdf).Google Scholar
Dunn, K, Rydzewska, E, Fleming, M, Cooper, SA (2020). Prevalence of mental health conditions, sensory impairments and physical disability in people with co-occurring intellectual disabilities and autism compared with other people: a cross-sectional total population study in Scotland. BMJ Open 10, e035280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Durbin, A, Balogh, R, Lin, E, Wilton, AS, Lunsky, Y (2018). Emergency department use: common presenting issues and continuity of care for individuals with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 48, 35423550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esler, A, Hewitt, A, Hall-Lande, J, Pettingell, SL, Houseworth, J (2019). Psychotropic medication use for adults with autism spectrum disorder who receive services and supports through adult developmental disability services in the United States. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 49, 22912303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felce, D, Kerr, M (2013). Investigating low adaptive behaviour and presence of the triad of impairments characteristic of autistic spectrum disorder as indicators of risk for challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 57, 128138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felce, D, Kerr, M, Hastings, RP (2009). A general practice-based study of the relationship between indicators of mental illness and challenging behaviour among adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 53, 243254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felce, D, Perry, J (2012). Diagnostic grouping among adults with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders in staffed housing. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 56, 11871193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flygare Wallén, E, Ljunggren, G, Carlsson, AC, Pettersson, D, Wändell, P (2018). High prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity among persons with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 62, 269280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Folch, A, Cortés, MJ, Salvador-Carulla, L, Vicens, P, Irazábal, M, Muñoz, S, Rovira, L, Orejuela, C, Haro, JM, Vilella, E, Martínez-Leal, R (2018). Risk factors and topographies for self-injurious behaviour in a sample of adults with intellectual developmental disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 62, 10181029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fombonne, E, Green Snyder, L, Daniels, A, Feliciano, P, Chung, W, The SPARK Consortium (2020). Psychiatric and medical profiles of autistic adults in the SPARK cohort. The Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 50, 36793698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerber, F, Bessero, S, Robbiani, B, Courvoisier, DS, Baud, MA, Traoré, MC, Blanco, P, Giroud, M, Galli Carminati, G (2011). Comparing residential programmes for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability: outcomes of challenging behaviour and quality of life. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 55, 918932.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillberg, C (1995). Clinical Child Neuropsychiatry. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillberg, C, Billstedt, E, Sundh, V, Gillberg, IC (2010). Mortality in autism: a prospective longitudinal community-based study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 40, 352357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillberg, C, Soderstrom, H (2003). Learning disability. Lancet 362, 811821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hand, BN, Benevides, TW, Carretta, HJ (2019b). Suicidal ideation and self-inflicted injury in medicare enrolled autistic adults with and without co-occurring intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 50, 34893495. DOI 10.1007/s10803-019-04345-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hand, BN, Boan, AD, Bradley, CC, Charles, JM, Carpenter, LA (2019a). Ambulatory care sensitive admissions in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and population controls. Autism Research 12, 295302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heinrich, M, Böhm, J, Sappok, T (2018). Diagnosing autism in adults with intellectual disability: validation of the DiBAS-R in an independent sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 48, 341350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirvikoski, T, Mittendorfer-Rutz, E, Boman, M, Larsson, H, Lichtenstein, P, Bölte, S (2016). Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry 208, 232238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hollocks, MJ, Lerh, JW, Magiati, I, Meiser-Stedman, R, Brugha, TS (2019). Anxiety and depression in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 49, 559572.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horovitz, M, Matson, JL, Sipes, M, Shoemaker, M, Belva, B, Bamburg, JW (2011). Incidence and trends in psychopathology symptoms over time in adults with severe to profound intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 32, 685692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hourigan, S, Fanagan, S, Kelly, C (2018). Annual report of the National Intellectual Disability Database Committee 2017: main findings. (https://www.hrb.ie/fileadmin/2._Plugin_related_files/Publications/2018_pubs/Disability/NIDD/NIDD_Annual_Report_2017.pdf).Google Scholar
Hwang, Y, Srasuebkul, P, Foley, KR, Arnold, S, Trollor, JN (2019). Mortality and cause of death of Australians on the autism spectrum. Autism Research 12, 806815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janicki, MP, Henderson, CM, Rubin, IL (2008). Neurodevelopmental conditions and aging: report on the Atlanta Study Group Charrette on Neurodevelopmental Conditions and Aging. Disability and Health Journal 1, 116124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jokinen, N, Janicki, MP, Keller, S, McCallion, P, Force, LT (2013). Guidelines for structuring community care and supports for people with intellectual disabilities affected by dementia. Journal of Policy & Practice in Intellectual disabilities 10, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanner, L (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child 2, 217250.Google Scholar
Kats, D, Payne, L, Parlier, M, Piven, J (2013). Prevalence of selected clinical problems in older adults with autism and intellectual disability. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 5, 27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiani, R, Tyrer, F, Hodgson, A, Berkin, N, Bhaumik, S (2013). Urban-rural differences in the nature and prevalence of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 57, 119127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kogan, MD, Vladutiu, CJ, Schieve, LA, Ghandour, RM, Blumberg, SJ, Zablotsky, B, Perrin, JM, Shattuck, P, Kuhlthau, KA, Harwood, RL, Lu, MC (2018). The prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder among US children. Pediatrics 142, e20174161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kraijer, D, de Bildt, A (2005). The PDD-MRS: an instrument for identification of autism spectrum disorders in persons with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35, 499513.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
La Malfa, G, Lassi, S, Bertelli, M, Salvini, R, Placidi, GF (2004). Autism and intellectual disability: a study of prevalence on a sample of the Italian population. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 48, 262267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lai, F, Williams, RS (1989). A prospective study of Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome. Archives of Neurology 46, 849853.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lord, C, Bishop, S, Anderson, D (2015). Developmental trajectories as autism phenotypes. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 169, 198208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LoVullo, SV, Matson, JL (2009). Comorbid psychopathology in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30, 12881296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lundqvist, LO (2013). Prevalence and risk markers of behavior problems among adults with intellectual disabilities: a total population study in Örebro county. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 13461356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maenner, MJ, Smith, LE, Hong, J, Makuch, R, Greenberg, JS, Mailick, MR (2013). Evaluation of an activities of daily living scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Disability and Health Journal 6, 817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Magiati, I, Tay, XW, Howlin, P (2014). Cognitive, language, social and behavioural outcomes in adults with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review of longitudinal follow-up studies in adulthood. Clinical Psychology Review 34, 7386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, J, Hess, J, Mahan, S, Fodstad, J, Neal, D (2012). Assessment of the relationship between diagnoses of ASD and caregiver symptom endorsement in adults diagnosed with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 168173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, J, Rivet, TT (2008). Characteristics of challenging behaviours in adults with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, and intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 33, 323329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, JL, Dempsey, T, Fodstad, JC (2009a). The effect of Autism Spectrum Disorders on adaptive independent living skills in adults with severe intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30, 12031211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, JL, Dempsey, T, Lovullo, SV, Wilkins, J (2008). The effects of intellectual functioning on the range of core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities 29, 341350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, JL, Neal, D (2009). Psychotropic medication use for challenging behaviors in persons with intellectual disabilities: an overview. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30, 572586.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, JL, Rivet, TT, Fodstad, JC, Dempsey, T, Boisjoli, JA (2009b). Examination of adaptive behavior differences in adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30, 13171325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, JL, Rush, KS, Hamilton, M, Anderson, SJ, Bamburg, JW, Baglio, CS, Williams, D, Kirkpatrick-Sanchez, S (1999). Characteristics of depression as assessed by the diagnostic assessment for the severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II). Research in Developmental Disabilities 20, 305313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, JL, Shoemaker, M (2009). Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30, 11071114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCallion, P, Jokinen, N, Janicki, MP (2017). Aging. In A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (ed. Wehmeyer, M.L., Brown, I., Percey, M., Shogren, K.A., Fung, M.), pp. 639654. Paul Brookes Press: Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
McCarron, M, Cleary, E, McCallion, P (2017). Health and health-care utilization of the older population of Ireland: comparing the intellectual disability population and the general population. Research on Aging 39, 693718.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarron, M, McCallion, P, Reilly, E, Dunne, P, Carroll, R, Mulryan, N (2017). A prospective 20-year longitudinal follow-up of dementia in persons with down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 61, 843852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarron, M, McCallion, P, Reilly, E, Mulryan, N (2014). A prospective 14-year longitudinal follow-up of dementia in persons with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 58, 6170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarron, M, Swinburne, J, Burke, E, McGlinchey, E, Carroll, R, McCallion, P (2013). Patterns of multimorbidity in an older population of persons with an intellectual disability: results from the intellectual disability supplement to the Irish longitudinal study on aging (IDS-TILDA). Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 521527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, J, Hemmings, C, Kravariti, E, Dworzynski, K, Holt, G, Bouras, N, Tsakanikos, E (2010). Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities 31, 362366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCausland, D, McCallion, P, Brennan, D, McCarron, M (2018). Interpersonal relationships of older adults with an intellectual disability in Ireland. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 31, e140e153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCausland, D, McCallion, P, McCarron, M (2021). Health and wellness among persons ageing with an intellectual disability. In Handbook on Ageing with Disability (ed. Putnam, M. and Bigby, C.), Taylor & Francis: London.Google Scholar
McClintock, K, Hall, S, Oliver, C (2003). Risk markers associated with challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: a meta-analytic study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 47, 405416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miot, S, Akbaraly, T, Michelon, C, Couderc, S, Crepiat, S, Loubersac, J, Picot, MC, Pernon, É., Gonnier, V, Jeandel, C, Blain, H, Baghdadli, A (2019). Comorbidity burden in adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities-a report from the EFAAR (frailty assessment in ageing adults with autism spectrum and intellectual disabilities) study. Frontiers in Psychiatry 10, 617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mouridsen, SE, Rich, B, Isager, T (2017). Eye disorders among adult people diagnosed with infantile autism in childhood: a longitudinal case control study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 24, 332335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mutsaerts, CG, Heinrich, M, Sterkenburg, PS, Sappok, T (2016). Screening for ASD in adults with ID-moving toward a standard using the DiBAS-R and the ACL. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 60, 512522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NICE Clinical Guideline 142 ‘Autism: recognition, referral, diagnosis and management of adults on the autism spectrum’ (2012) (updated 2014). (https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg142/evidence/full-guideline-pdf-186587677).Google Scholar
Nylander, L, Axmon, A, Björne, P, Ahlström, G, Gillberg, C (2018). Older adults with autism spectrum disorders in Sweden: a register study of diagnoses, psychiatric care utilization and psychotropic medication of 601 individuals. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 48, 30763085.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Dwyer, C, McCallion, P, Burke, É., Carroll, R, O'Dwyer, M, McCarron, M (2018). Prevalence and associated factors of problem behaviours among older adults with intellectual disabilities in Ireland. Research in Developmental Disabilities 80, 192204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Dwyer, C, McCallion, P, Henman, M, McCarron, M, O'Leary, E, Burke, E, O'Connell, J, O'Dwyer, M (2019). Prevalence and patterns of antipsychotic use and their associations with mental health and problem behaviours among older adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 32, 981993.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Dwyer, M, Peklar, J, McCallion, P, McCarron, M, Henman, MC (2016). Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with intellectual disability differ from the general population: a cross-sectional observational nationwide study. BMJ Open 6, e010505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paton, C, Bhatti, S, Purandare, K, Roy, A, Barnes, T (2016). Quality of prescribing of antipsychotic medication for people with intellectual disability under the care of UK mental health services: a cross-sectional audit of clinical practice. BMJ Open 6, e013116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perkins, EA, Berkman, KA (2012). Into the unknown: aging with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 117, 478496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roestorf, A, Bowler, DM, Deserno, MK, Howlin, P, Klinger, L, McConachie, H, Parr, JR, Powell, P, Van Heijst, BCF, Geurts, HM (2019). Older adults with ASD: the consequences of aging., Insights from a series of special interest group meetings held at the International Society for Autism Research 2016-2017. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 63, 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roy, M, Balaratnasingam, S (2010). Missed diagnosis of autism in an Australian indigenous psychiatric population. Australasian Psychiatry 18, 534537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubenstein, E, Bishop, L (2019). Is the autism boom headed for medicaid? Patterns in the enrollment of autistic adults in Wisconsin medicaid, 2008-2018. Autism Research 12, 15411550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saemundsen, E, Juliusson, H, Hjaltested, S, Gunnarsdottir, T, Halldorsdottir, T, Hreidarsson, S, Magnusson, P (2010). Prevalence of autism in an urban population of adults with severe intellectual disabilities--a preliminary study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 54, 727735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandhu, D, Tomlins, R (2017). Clinical needs and outcomes of adults with intellectual disabilities accessing an inpatient assessment and treatment service and the implication for development of community services. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities 21, 519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sappok, T, Budczies, J, Bölte, S, Dziobek, I, Dosen, A, Diefenbacher, A (2013a). Emotional development in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: a retrospective, clinical analysis. PloS One 8, e74036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sappok, T, Budczies, J, Dziobek, I, Bölte, S, Dosen, A, Diefenbacher, A (2014). The missing link: delayed emotional development predicts challenging behavior in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44, 786800.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sappok, T, Diefenbacher, A, Budczies, J, Schade, C, Grubich, C, Bergmann, T, Bölte, S, Dziobek, I (2013b). Diagnosing autism in a clinical sample of adults with intellectual disabilities: how useful are the ADOS and the ADI-R? Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 16421655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sappok, T, Diefenbacher, A, Gaul, I, Bölte, S (2015). Validity of the social communication questionnaire in adults with intellectual disabilities and suspected autism spectrum disorder. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 120, 203214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoufour, JD, Oppewal, A, van der Maarl, H, Hermans, H, Evenhuis, HM, Hilgenkamp, T, Festen, DA (2018). Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are independently associated with mortality in older people with intellectual disabilities: a 5-Year follow-up from the HA-ID study. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 123, 7282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shah, A, Holmes, N, Wing, L (1982). Prevalence of autism and related conditions in adults in a mental handicap hospital. Applied Research in Mental Retardation 3, 303317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheehan, R, Hassiotis, A, Walters, K, Osborn, D, Strydom, A, Horsfall, L (2015). Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study. BMJ 351, h4326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shin, DW, Lee, JW, Jung, JH, Han, K, Kim, SY, Choi, KS, Park, JH, Park, JH (2018). Disparities in cervical cancer screening among women with disabilities: a national database study in South Korea. Journal of Clinical Oncology 36, 27782786.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Totsika, V, Felce, D, Kerr, M, Hastings, RP, Tricco, AC, Lillie, E, et al. (2010). Behavior problems, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life for older adults with intellectual disability with and without autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 40, 11711178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tricco, AC, Lillie, E, Zarin, W, O'Brien, KK, Colquhoun, H, Levac, D, et al. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine 169, 467473.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsakanikos, E, Costello, H, Holt, G, Bouras, N, Sturmey, P, Newton, T (2006). Psychopathology in adults with autism and intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36, 11231129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsakanikos, E, Costello, H, Holt, G, Sturmey, P, Bouras, N (2007). Behaviour management problems as predictors of psychotropic medication and use of psychiatric services in adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37, 10801085.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsiouris, JA, Kim, SY, Brown, WT, Cohen, IL (2011). Association of aggressive behaviours with psychiatric disorders, age, sex and degree of intellectual disability: a large-scale survey. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 55, 636649.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tureck, K, Matson, JL, Beighley, JS (2013). An investigation of self-injurious behaviors in adults with severe intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34, 24692474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Niekerk, ME, Groen, W, Vissers, CT, van Driel-de Jong, D, Kan, CC, Oude Voshaar, RC (2011). Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people. International Psychogeriatrics 23, 700710.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Visser, FE, Aldenkamp, AP, van Huffelen, AC, Kuilman, M, Overweg, J, van Wijk, J (1997). Prospective study of the prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia in institutionalized individuals with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Retardation 101, 400412.Google ScholarPubMed
Wilkins, J, Matson, JL (2009). A comparison of social skills profiles in intellectually disabled adults with and without ASD. Behavior Modification 33, 143155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wise, EA (2020). Aging in autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 28, 339349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wise, EA, Smith, MD, Rabins, PV (2019). Correlates of daily functioning in older adults with autism spectrum disorder. Aging & Mental Health 24, 17541762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Autism spectrum disorder in older adults with intellectual disability: a scoping review
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Autism spectrum disorder in older adults with intellectual disability: a scoping review
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Autism spectrum disorder in older adults with intellectual disability: a scoping review
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *