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Strafford's ‘spirit’ at the royalist court: Sir George Radcliffe and Irish affairs, 1643–5

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 December 2019

Fiona Pogson
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Liverpool Hope University
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Abstract

This article examines how the handling of Irish affairs at the civil-war court was observed, commented upon, and probably influenced, by a man who had been at the heart of Irish government during the previous decade. It argues that the presence of Sir George Radcliffe, arguably Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford's closest advisor, at the royalist court in Oxford was significant in a number of respects. His surviving correspondence reveals the extent to which he was able to advise and support the newly-appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, the marquis of Ormond. His letters also cast light on the politics of the civil-war court, in particular on how he, as an essentially second-level figure, worked flexibly with both secretaries of state. This article argues that Radcliffe's discussions with secretary of state, George Lord Digby, provided an important means by which Strafford's influence could make itself felt at the Oxford court, particularly during the 1644 negotiations with the Confederate commissioners. The pursuit of forceful, contentious policies by the former Irish administration and its contemptuous attitude towards critics, however, ensured that Radcliffe's presence at Oxford was probably unwelcome to many at court and failed to advance his career.

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Copyright © Irish Historical Studies Publications Ltd 2019

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References

1 Scott, David, ‘Counsel and cabal in the king's party, 1642–1646’ in McElligott, Jason and Smith, David L. (eds), Royalists and royalism during the English civil wars (Cambridge, 2007), pp 129–35Google Scholar; see also Adamson, John, ‘Strafford's ghost: the British context of Viscount Lisle's lieutenancy of Ireland’ in Ohlmeyer, Jane H. (ed.), Ireland from independence to occupation, 1641–1660 (Cambridge, 1995), pp 128–59Google Scholar; Little, Patrick, ‘The Irish “Independents” and Viscount Lisle's lieutenancy of Ireland’ in Hist. Jn., xliv, no. 4 (Dec. 2001), pp 941–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar, on the extent to which developments in Ireland during the mid-1640s continued to be influenced by Strafford's government.

2 Ronald Hutton, ‘Digby, George, second earl of Bristol (1612–1677)’ in O.D.N.B.; Toby Barnard, ‘Butler, James, first duke of Ormond (1610–1688)’ in ibid.

3 Whitaker, T. D. (ed.), The life and original correspondence of Sir George Radcliffe, knight, LL.D., the friend of the earl of Strafford (London, 1810), p. 285Google Scholar.

4 Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal in the king's party, 1642–1646’, p. 125.

5 Fiona Pogson, ‘Radcliffe, Sir George (1593–1657)’ in O.D.N.B.; The diary of Sir James Ware, 1623–66’, ed. Empey, Mark in Anal. Hib., no. 45 (Dublin, 2014), pp 93, 96Google Scholar; see also Charlotte Brownhill, ‘The personal and professional relationships between Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford and his closest advisors’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, 2004), pp 130–2. Radcliffe's relatively humble background was acknowledged by the lord deputy when he requested that Radcliffe be sworn of the Dublin council (Strafford [i.e. Wentworth before new year 1640] to Secretary Coke, 3 Aug. 1633 (Sheffield City Libraries, Archives and Information: Sheffield Archives, Wentworth Woodhouse Muniments, Strafford papers [hereafter Sheffield Archives, Str. P.] 5/10)), and criticised by the Irish House of Lords when it noted the lord deputy's employment of ‘sundry persons of mean condition’ (Lords’ jn. Ire., i, 164). The author would like to thank the senior archivist, Sheffield Archives, for permission to quote from the Strafford papers. The Wentworth Woodhouse papers have been accepted in lieu of inheritance tax by H.M. Government and allocated to Sheffield City Council.

6 See McCafferty, John, The reconstruction of the Church of Ireland: Bishop Bramhall and the Laudian reforms, 1633–1641 (Cambridge, 2007), pp 55, 130, 133CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Radcliffe is described as ‘probably the single most important individual to be included, albeit discreetly’ in the list of new trustees of the King's Inn, the Irish Inn of Court, in 1638 (Kenny, Colum, King's Inns and the kingdom of Ireland: the Irish ‘Inn of Court’, 1541–1800 (Dublin, 1992), pp 109, 112, 223Google Scholar). He was a member of the Irish customs farm from 1632 and particularly active in this business, claiming in 1636 that he was ‘trusted by the rest [of the farmers] for the manageing’ of the customs; in the late 1630s, if not before, Radcliffe had possession of the lord deputy's financial accounts which were kept alongside his own: see Radcliffe's deposition concerning the customs, 13 July 1636 (Sheffield Archives, Str. P. 24/25/196); Wentworth to Wandesford, 25 July 1636 (Bodl., Carte papers [hereafter Carte MS] 1, f. 131v) and Radcliffe's correspondence with Sir Ingram, Arthur in H.M.C., Various collections, viii (London, 1919), pp 43–7Google Scholar; Pogson, Fiona, ‘Financial accounts of Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford, and Sir George Radcliffe, 1639–40’ in Anal. Hib., no. 48 (2017), p. 92Google Scholar.

7 Merritt, J. F., ‘Power and communication: Thomas Wentworth and government at a distance during the personal rule, 1629–1635’ in idem, The political world of Thomas Wentworth, earl of Strafford, 1621–1641 (Cambridge, 1996), p. 140Google Scholar; Terry Clavin, ‘Radcliffe, Sir George’ in D.I.B., on Radcliffe's assistance in securing the return to the church of impropriated livings.

8 Clavin, ‘Radcliffe, Sir George’.

9 Rushworth, John, The tryal of Thomas earl of Strafford (London, 1700), p. 112Google Scholar.

10 Valentia to Sir Philip Percivall, 4 Aug. 1647 (B.L., Add. MS 46931B).

11 Whitaker, Radcliffe, p. 272.

12 See Perceval-Maxwell, Michael, The outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 (Dublin, 1994), pp 83–9Google Scholar.

13 ‘I cannot write to him now; the best is, what is for one is for both. … Continue your letters, which are not ill bestowed upon me; for I observe them, and have great use of your advice, which hath helped me exceedingly.’ (Whitaker, Radcliffe, pp 221–2.)

14 Ibid., p. 211; see also Wandesford to Radcliffe, 28 July, 18 Aug. 1640 (Bodl., MS Add. C 286, letters of Christopher Wandesford, ff 30, 35).

Ibid.

15 Strafford had explicitly asked him to be ready to help him if he was charged. See Pogson, ‘Radcliffe, Sir George’; Whitaker, Radcliffe, p. 218. The king, however, ensured that Radcliffe was allowed to read the Irish Remonstrance and forward his response to the lord lieutenant, and he was also consulted on the extent of the impact on Irish revenue of the extension to Ireland of the Act of Limitations (untitled paper, 11 Mar. 1640[/41] (B.L., Eg. MS 2541, ff. 225–6); Perceval-Maxwell, Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion, p. 120).

16 Perceval-Maxwell, Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion, pp 119, 122, 129; see also Kearney, Hugh, Strafford in Ireland, 1633–41: a study in absolutism (2nd ed., Cambridge, 1989), p. 163CrossRefGoogle Scholar; McCafferty, Reconstruction of the Church of Ireland, p. 215, on the ending of Commons proceedings against Lowther and Bolton in June 1642 but not those against Radcliffe and Bramhall until Feb. 1645. Christopher Wandesford died in December 1640.

17 Fissell, Mark Charles, The Bishops’ Wars: Charles I's campaigns against Scotland, 1638–1640 (Cambridge, 1994), p. 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Radcliffe stood surety, together with the chancellor of the exchequer, Francis, Lord Cottington, and an unnamed third individual – possibly Strafford? – for the sale of a requisitioned cargo of pepper.

18 The autobiography of Mrs Alice Thornton of East Newton, Co. York, ed. Jackson, Charles (Durham, 1875), p. 26Google Scholar.

19 Ibid., pp 237–41.

Ibid.

20 Sir William Savile, the son of his godfather, was defeated at Leeds in January 1643 by forces under Thomas Fairfax.

21 Petition of Sir George Wentworth to Lord Protector Cromwell, [14 Aug.] 1657 (T.N.A., SP 63/287, f. 80).

22 Darwall-Smith, Robin, A history of University College Oxford (Oxford, 2008), pp 154, 166Google Scholar. I am grateful to Dr Darwall-Smith for discussing his research with me.

23 Arthur Trevor to Ormond, 2 Nov. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 339).

24 An earlier letter survives, dated 8 Oct. 1642, in which Radcliffe recommended his kinsman, Mr Whitfield, for a military post (Bodl., Carte MS 3, f. 553).

25 H.M.C., Various collections, iii (London, 1904), p. 220Google Scholar, on Mainwaring, who might have resided at his former college, Brasenose; Radcliffe to Ormond, 31 Oct. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 303), mentioning Ussher; Radcliffe to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] in Carte, Thomas, The life of James, duke of Ormond (6 vols, Oxford, 1851), vi, 39, on CottingtonGoogle Scholar.

26 de Groot, Jerome, ‘Space, patronage, procedure: the court at Oxford, 1642–46’ in E.H.R., cxvii, no. 474 (Nov. 2002), p. 1212Google Scholar.

27 Radcliffe to Ormond, 24 Feb. 1644[/45] (Bodl., Carte MS 14, f. 131).

28 Edwards, David, The Ormond lordship in County Kilkenny, 1515–1642: the rise and fall of Butler feudal power (Dublin, 2003), pp 297302Google Scholar; Kelly, W. P., ‘Ormond and Strafford, pupil and mentor?’ in Journal of the Butler Society, iv (1997), p. 95Google Scholar; H.M.C., Calendar of the manuscripts of the marquess of Ormonde, new series, i (London, 1902), pp 2443Google Scholar; Ormond's appointment of Wandesford to act as his receiver, 21 Mar. 1635[/36] (Bodl., Carte MS 1, f. 112); John Bramhall to Ormond, 22 Mar. 1643[/44] (Bodl., Carte MS 9, f. 589); Radcliffe to Ormond, 18 July 1644 (Bodl., Carte MS 11, f. 493).

29 Carte, Life, i, 131; Brownhill, ‘Personal and professional relationships’, p. 193; William P. Kelly, ‘The early career of James Butler, twelfth earl and first duke of Ormond (1610–1688), 1610–1643’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1994), p. 141; Edwards, David, ‘The poisoned chalice: the Ormond inheritance, sectarian division and the emergence of James Butler, 1614–1642’ in Barnard, Toby and Fenlon, Jane (eds), The dukes of Ormonde, 1610–1745 (Woodbridge, 2000), pp 7280Google Scholar.

30 Edwards, ‘The poisoned chalice’, p. 73; see also Michael Perceval-Maxwell, ‘Butler, James (1610–88)’ in D.I.B.

31 Perceval-Maxwell, ‘Butler, James (1610–88)’.

32 Kelly, W. P., ‘James Butler, 12th earl of Ormond, the Irish government and the Bishops’ Wars, 1638–40’ in Young, John R. (ed.), Celtic dimensions of the British Civil Wars (Edinburgh, 1997), pp 43–7Google Scholar; Edwards, ‘The poisoned chalice’, p. 77, but see Perceval-Maxwell, ‘Butler, James (1610–88)’.

33 Barnard, ‘Butler, James, first duke of Ormond (1610–1688)’; Whitaker, Radcliffe, pp 210–11; but see Edwards on Ormond's lack of military experience, The Ormond lordship, p. 291. See also Letters and despatches of Thomas, earl of Strafforde, ed. Knowler, William (2 vols, Dublin, 1740), ii, 418Google Scholar, Strafford's request on the eve of his execution that the king assign Ormond his place in the Order of the Garter.

34 Perceval-Maxwell, Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion, p. 167.

35 Arthur Trevor to Ormond, 2 Nov. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 339); H.M.C., Marquess of Ormonde, new series, i, 163, 170, 299, 306, 313.

36 Ormond to Charles I, 12 Dec. 1641 (T.N.A., SP 63/260, f. 190). Fifteen letters from Radcliffe to Ormond have survived, ten of which were printed by Carte, together with a single one from the marquis and an undated memorandum in Ormond's hand endorsed ‘Sr G. R.’, although references in Radcliffe's letters indicate that he received letters by Ormond that have not survived.

37 Perceval-Maxwell, ‘Butler, James (1610–88)’ in D.I.B; Lords Justices and Council of Ireland to Secretary Nicholas, 9 Sept. 1643 (Bodl., Clarendon State Papers [hereafter Clarendon MS] 22, f. 123/no. 1724).

38 Charles I to Ormond, 23 Apr. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 5, f. 147); see also the comments of Sir Thomas Wharton and Inchiquin to Ormond in July 1644, urging him to advise the king against further negotiations with the Confederation (Bodl., Clarendon MS 23, ff 172–4, nos 1774 and 1775).

39 Armstrong, Robert, Protestant war: the ‘British’ of Ireland and the wars of the three kingdoms (Manchester, 2005), pp 96101Google Scholar.

40 Radcliffe to Ormond, 14, 17 Dec. 1643 (Carte, Life, v, 537–9).

41 Radcliffe to Ormond, 31 Oct. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 303); Digby to Ormond, 2 Nov. 1643 (ibid., f. 317).

42 Radcliffe to Ormond, 14 Dec. 1643 (Carte, Life, v, 538); Ormond to Digby, 13 Jan. 1643[/44] (ibid., vi, 6–7).

43 Radcliffe to Ormond, 17 Dec. 1643 (ibid., v, 539); Radcliffe to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (ibid., vi, 38); see also Clanricarde to Ormond, 2, 13 Nov. 1643 (Letter book of the earl of Clanricarde 1643–47, ed. Lowe, John (Dublin, 1983), pp 1317Google Scholar). The king's opinion was not transmitted to the marquis until six days later, when Digby wrote that as the troops arriving from Ireland seemed loyal and in good order Ormond ought to remain in Ireland: Digby to Ormond, 23 Dec. 1643 (Carte, Life, v, 544).

44 Armstrong, Protestant war, p. 111.

45 Ohlmeyer, Jane H., Civil war and Restoration in the three Stuart kingdoms: the career of Randal MacDonnell, marquis of Antrim (Cambridge, 1993; repr. Dublin, 2001), pp 129–30Google Scholar.

46 Radcliffe to Ormond, 17 Jan. 1643[/44] (Carte, Life, vi, 13–14).

47 Ohlmeyer, Civil war and Restoration, chapter 3 and pp 128–32, 145–7.

48 Radcliffe to Ormond, 17 Jan., 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (Carte, Life, vi, 13–14, 38).

49 Digby to Ormond, 8 Feb. 1643[/44] (ibid., 32).

50 Wentworth to Laud, 10 May 1639 (Sheffield Archives, Str. P. 7/182).

51 Ormond to Radcliffe, 11 Mar. 1643/4 (Carte, Life, vi, 59-60) (this single surviving letter is a brief response to the ones that he had received by early March 1644, expressing satisfaction with the efforts that Radcliffe had made on his behalf regarding the command of troops in Wales and the adjacent counties and promising a lengthier discussion when time permitted); Ormond to Digby, 13 Mar. 1643[/44] (ibid., vi, 60–61).

52 Digby to Ormond, 8 Mar. 1643[/44] (ibid., 56).

53 Ohlmeyer, Civil war and Restoration, pp 136, 150.

54 Radcliffe to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (Carte, Life, vi, 38-40); Patrick Little, ‘O'Brien, Murrough, first earl of Inchiquin (c.1614–1674)’ in O.D.N.B.; Armstrong, Protestant war, pp 116–18; on Ormond's relationship with Cork see T. C. Barnard, ‘Introduction: the dukes of Ormonde’ in Barnard and Fenlon (eds), The dukes of Ormonde 1610–1745, p. 19; on Ormond's relations with Inchiquin, see Patrick Little, ‘The marquess of Ormond and the English parliament, 1645–1647’ in ibid., p. 85.

55 Nicholas to Ormond, 19 Nov. 1643, 5 Mar. 1643[/44] (Carte, Life, v, 518, vi, pp 46–8); Kelly, ‘The early career of James Butler, twelfth earl and first duke of Ormond’, pp 394–9.

56 Nicholas to Ormond, 20 May 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 125).

57 Radcliffe to Ormond, 17 Dec. 1643 (ibid., v, 539); Radcliffe to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (ibid., vi, 38).

58 Radcliffe to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (ibid., vi, 40).

59 Nicholas to Ormond, 24 Nov. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 367); Radcliffe to Ormond, 10 Feb. 1643[/44] (Bodl., Carte MS 9, f. 175).

60 See, for example, Carte, Life, vi, pp 39, 56, 84; Radcliffe to Ormond, 31 Oct. 1643 (Bodl., Carte MS 7, f. 303).

61 See below, footnote 87.

62 Radcliffe to Ormond, 23 Mar. 1643[/44] (Bodl., Carte MS 9, f. 602).

63 Radcliffe to Nicholas, 16 May 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 121).

64 Radcliffe to Ormond, 24 Feb. 1644[/45] (Bodl., Carte MS 14, f. 131).

65 The Nicholas papers, ed. George F. Warner (4 vols, Camden Society, new series, xl, l, lvii, third series, xxxi, London, 1886–1920), i, 292, 296, 301–2. Edward Hyde seems also to have regarded Radcliffe very favourably during this period, warmly commending him to Lord Hopton, 6 Apr. 1647 (Bodl., Clarendon MS 29, f. 189/no. 2491).

66 Armstrong, Protestant war, p. 119.

67 ‘The Propositions of the Roman Catholics of Ireland … together with the humble Answer of the Agents for the Protestants’ (Bodl., Clarendon MS 23, ff 134–141v/no. 1757/8); Siochrú, Micheál Ó, Confederate Ireland, 1642–1649: a constitutional and political analysis (Dublin, 1999), pp 70–3Google Scholar; Armstrong, Robert, ‘Ormond, the Confederate peace talks and Protestant royalism’ in Siochrú, Micheál Ó (ed.), Kingdoms in crisis: Ireland in the 1640s (Dublin, 2001), pp 122–5Google Scholar; Armstrong, Protestant war, pp 120–1.

68 T.N.A., Privy Council 2/53, xii, 229–30.

69 Ibid. Fifteen councillors attended this meeting, including both Digby and Nicholas.

Ibid.
Ibid.

71 Ibid., 230 (13 May). Sixteen councillors attended, thirteen of whom were present on 9 May, including both Digby and Nicholas.

Ibid.

72 Ibid. The argument that the 1643 cessation had preserved the Irish Protestants as they were not strong enough to resist Confederate forces was made again during the negotiations in early 1645 at Uxbridge: Edward, earl of Clarendon, The history of the rebellion and civil wars in England, ed. Macray, W. Dunn (6 vols, Oxford, 1888), iii, 488–9Google Scholar.

Ibid.

73 Ó Siochrú, Confederate Ireland, p. 73; Armstrong, ‘Ormond, the Confederate peace talks and Protestant royalism’, p. 125. Armstrong notes the hospitality in London and the ‘ear of the Committee of Both Kingdoms’ offered to the Protestant agents which some of the Dublin council delegation also took up (Protestant war, p. 121).

74 Radcliffe to Ormond, 2 Apr. 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 84).

75 Trevor to Ormond, 25 Mar. 1644 (ibid., 70).

76 Digby to Ormond, 2 Apr. 1644 (ibid., 85–6).

77 Radcliffe and Digby to Ormond, both 2 Apr. 1644 (ibid., 84-6); Siochrú, Micheál Ó, ‘Catholic Confederates and the constitutional relationship between Ireland and England, 1641–1649’ in Brady, Ciaran and Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds), British interventions in early modern Ireland (Cambridge, 2005), pp 216–19Google Scholar. On Sir Brian O'Neill, see Burke, John, A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies of England (London, 1838), p. 393Google Scholar.

78 Radcliffe to Ormond, 16 May 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 120–1).

79 Radcliffe to Ormond, 11 June 1644 (ibid., 146–8); Ó Siochrú, Confederate Ireland, p. 72.

80 Thirteen councillors attended both meetings; Richmond and Seymour attended on the 9 May; Littleton, Cottington and Dorset on the 13 May. Richmond, Hertford, Lindsey, Dorset, Southampton, Savile, Nicholas and Hyde could not be regarded as holding such ‘private opinions’, and there is no evidence that Berkshire, Littleton, Bankes, Hatton or Dunsmore did either.

81 Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal’, p. 116; Pogson, Fiona, ‘Making and maintaining political alliances during the personal rule of Charles I: Wentworth's associations with Laud and Cottington’ in History, lxxxiv, no. 273 (Jan. 1999), pp 5273CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

82 de Groot, Jerome, Royalist identities (Basingstoke, 2004), p. 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

83 David L. Smith, ‘Colepeper, John, first baron Colepeper (bap. 1600, d. 1660)’ in O.D.N.B.; Letters of Queen Henrietta Maria, ed. Green, Mary Ann Everitt (London, 1857), pp 194, 201, 213, 270Google Scholar; Scott, David, ‘Rethinking royalist politics, 1642–9’ in Adamson, John (ed.), The English Civil War: conflict and contexts, 1640–49 (Basingstoke, 2009), p. 43Google Scholar.

84 Radcliffe to Ormond, 2 Apr. 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 84).

85 Radcliffe to Ormond, 16 May, 11 June 1644 (ibid., 120–21, 146–8); Digby to Ormond, 9 May 1644 (ibid., p. 119), my italics.

86 Russell, Conrad, The fall of the British monarchies, 1637–1642 (Oxford, 1991), p. 287Google Scholar. The importance of being seen to uphold Protestantism was also evidently understood clearly by Charles II in exile during the attempted conversion of his younger brother, the duke of Gloucester, in 1654: see Greenspan, Nicole, ‘Public scandal, political controversy, and familial conflict in the Stuart courts in exile: the struggle to convert the duke of Gloucester in 1654’ in Albion, xxxv, no. 3 (Fall 2003), pp 418–20Google Scholar.

87 Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal’, pp 119–20.

88 Radcliffe to Ormond, 11 June 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, p. 147); Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal’, p. 126. Radcliffe noted that Ashburnham was the only Englishman in the Bedchamber other than Endymion Porter. As no correspondence between Ashburnham and Ormond seems to have survived it is not clear whether such an alliance was achieved. See also Clarendon, History of the rebellion, iv, 183, 267; Hutton, Ronald, ‘The structure of the royalist party, 1642–1646’ in Hist. Jn., xxiv, no. 3 (Sept. 1981), pp 553–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Daly, James, ‘The implications of royalist politics, 1642–1646’ in Hist. Jn., xxvii, no. 3 (Sept. 1984), pp 745–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Smith, David L., ‘“The more posed and wise advice”: the fourth earl of Dorset and the English Civil Wars’ in Hist. Jn., xxxiv, no. 4 (Dec. 1991), pp 797829CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sean Kelsey, ‘Ashburnham, John (1602/3–1671)’ in O.D.N.B.; Ashburnham to Nicholas, 12 Feb. 1648[/49], Nicholas to Ashburnham, 8 March (n.s.) 1648[/49] (The Nicholas Papers, ed. Warner, i, 111–15).

89 Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal in the king's party, 1642–1646’, pp 117–20; Kearney, Strafford in Ireland, 1633–41, p. 166; see, for example, Str. P. 14/269, 15/126; Ronald Asch, ‘Porter, Endymion (1587–1649)’ in O.D.N.B.

90 Caroline Hibbard, ‘Henrietta Maria [Princess Henrietta Maria of France] (1609–1669)’ in O.D.N.B.

91 Letters of Queen Henrietta Maria, ed. Green, pp 149; 198; 240; 265–9; Arthur Trevor to Ormond, 19 Feb. 1643[/44] (Carte, Life, vi, p. 38); Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal’, p. 121.

92 ‘The Answear of the Archbishop of Armagh unto the Interrogatories proposed by the Lords’, 28 March 1641 (B.L., Add. MS 34,253, f. 3).

93 Ute Lotz-Heumann, ‘St John, Oliver, first Viscount Grandison of Limerick (1559–1630)’ in O.D.N.B.; Sean Kelsey, ‘Cary, Henry, first Viscount Falkland (c.1575–1633)’ in ibid. Mark Empey's doctoral thesis has, however, argued that Strafford's attitude towards the Catholic faith in Ireland was less tolerant than has usually been claimed, drawing attention to his efforts to curtail the activities and influence of the Catholic clergy: ‘Paving the way to prerogative: the politics of Sir Thomas Wentworth, c.1614–1635 (Ph.D. thesis, U.C.D., 2009), chapter 7.

94 Clarke, Aidan, The Old English in Ireland (London, 1966), especially chapter 5Google Scholar.

95 Scott, ‘Counsel and cabal’, p. 125.

96 Russell, The fall of the British monarchies, p. 127; Ronald G. Asch, ‘Wentworth, Thomas, first earl of Strafford (1593–1641)’ in O.D.N.B.

97 See, for example, his dispatches to Secretary Coke on 3 Aug. and 23 Oct. 1633, and his detailed paper of 10 Aug. 1638 (Sheffield Archives, Str. P. 5/9, 5/15, 8/110).

98 T.N.A., SP 16/452/31. See Smuts, Malcolm, ‘Force, love and authority in Caroline political culture’ in Atherton, Ian and Sanders, Julie (eds), The 1630s: interdisciplinary essays on culture and politics in the Caroline era (Manchester, 2006), pp 31–2Google Scholar.

99 Russell, The fall of the British monarchies, pp 128–9; Asch, ‘Wentworth, Thomas, first earl of Strafford (1593–1641)’.

100 Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (ed.), The constitutional documents of the Puritan revolution, 1625–1660 (3rd ed., Oxford, 1906), pp 278, 298Google Scholar: Radcliffe was listed twenty-first and nineteenth in the lists of those refused pardon.

101 Hutton, ‘Digby, George, second earl of Bristol (1612–1677)’.

102 Radcliffe to Ormond, 11 June 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 146–7).

103 Ó Siochrú, Confederate Ireland, p. 82; Armstrong, Protestant war, pp 122–42.

104 Radcliffe to Ormond, 18 July 1644 (Carte, Life, vi, 166–7).

105 Cust, Richard, Charles I: a political life (Harlow, 2005), p. 399Google Scholar.

106 Armstrong, Protestant war, pp 122–42; Ó Siochrú, Confederate Ireland, pp 76–83.

107 Armstrong, Protestant war, p. 122 and n. 20 on Bolton.

108 Radcliffe to Ormond, 24 Feb. 1644[/45] (Bodl., Carte MS 14, f. 131).

109 Radcliffe would have recalled the lord deputy's concern at the likely consequences of removing Sir John Hotham from the government of Hull against his advice (Wentworth to Secretary Coke, 27 Mar. 1639 (Sheffield Archives, Str. P. 11a/211)).

110 See his draft essay in The earl of Strafforde's letters and despatches with an essay towards his life, ed. Knowler, William (Dublin, 1740), ii, 429–36Google Scholar.

111 Gardiner (ed.), Constitutional documents, pp 278, 298.

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