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Management of the dead from the Islamic law and international humanitarian law perspectives: Considerations for humanitarian forensics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2018

Abstract

This article discusses a number of contemporary issues and challenges pertinent to the management of the dead in contemporary armed conflicts and other situations of violence and natural disasters under Islamic law and international humanitarian law. Among the issues and challenges faced by forensic specialists in Muslim contexts at present are collective burial, quick burial of dead bodies, exhumation of human remains, autopsy, burial at sea, and handling of the bodies by the opposite sex. The article concludes that both legal systems have developed rules which aim at the protection of the dignity and respect of dead bodies, and that they complement each other to achieve this protection in specific Muslim contexts. The main objectives of this article are twofold: firstly, to give an overview of the Islamic law position on these specific questions and challenges, in order to, secondly, provide some advice or insight into how forensic specialists can deal with them.

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Selected articles
Copyright
Copyright © icrc 2018 

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Footnotes

*

The views expressed in this article are those of the author and should not be interpreted as official positions of the ICRC. The author would like to thank the anonymous peer reviewers, Sarah Gale, Dr. Ayman Shaban, Oran Finegan, Ellen Policinski and Yarimar C. Ruiz Orozco for their valuable comments on earlier drafts of this article.

References

1 Qur'an 95:4. This and other Qur'anic texts (20:55, 77:25–26) make it clear that dead bodies are to be buried.

2 See, for example, Hadith 715 in Hibah Allah ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Manṣūr al-Lākā’ī, Sharḥ Uṣūl Iʻtiqād Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamāʻah min al-Kitāb wa al-Sunnah wa Ijmāʻ al-Ṣaḥābah, ed. Ḥamdān, Aḥmad Saʻd, Vol. 3, Dār Ṭībah, Riyadh, 1981, p. 423Google Scholar; Hadith 2458 in Muḥammad ibn Fattūḥ al-Ḥumaydī, Al-Jamʻ bayn al-Ṣaḥīḥayn al-Bukhārī wa Muslim, ed. al-Bawwāb, ʻAlī Ḥusayn, 2nd ed, Vol. 3, Dār ibn Ḥazm, Beirut, 2002, pp. 210 ff.Google Scholar; Hadith 516 in Aḥmad ibn ʻAmr ibn Abī ʻĀṣīm al-Ḍaḥḥāk, Kitāb al-Sunnah, ed. al-Albānī, Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn, Vol. 1, Al-Maktab al-Islāmī, Beirut, 1979, p. 228Google Scholar; Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī ibn Ḥajar al-ʻAsqalānī, Bulūgh al-Marām min Adillah al-Ḥukām, ed. Hādī, Iṣām Mūsā, Vol. 1, Dār al-Ṣiddīq, Saudi Arabia, 2002, p. 377Google Scholar; ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz Ṣaqr, ʻAl-ʻAlāqāt al-Dawliyyah fī al-Islām Waqt al-Ḥarb: Dirāsah lil-Qawāʻid al-Munaẓẓimah li-Sayr al-Qitāl, Mashrūʻ al-ʻAlāqāt al-Dawliyyah fī al-Islām No. 6, Al-Maʻhad al-ʻĀlamī lil-Fikr al-Islāmī, Cairo, 1996, p. 56.

3 See Hadith 24783 in Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Vol. 6, Mu'assasah Qurṭubah, Cairo, p. 105; Hadith 2307 in Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath Abū Dāwūd, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, ed. Muḥammad Muḥyī al-Dīn ‘Abd al-Ḥamīd, Vol. 3, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut, p. 212; ʻAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʻīd ibn Ḥazm, Al-Muhallā, ed. Committee of the Revival of Arabic Heritage, Dār al-Āfāq al-Jadīdah, Beirut, Vol. 5, p. 166, and Vol. 11, p. 40; Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī, Al-Majmūʻ, Vol. 5, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut, 1997, p. 263Google Scholar; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, “Fatwas of the Permanent Committee”, available at: www.alifta.net/Fatawa/fatawaDetails.aspx?languagename=en&BookID=7&View=Page&PageNo=1&PageID=3094 (all internet references were accessed in September 2018).

4 Andrabi, Abroo Aman, “Medical Ethics within the Islamic Tradition and the Specific Issues in the Modern Scientific Era”, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2018, p. 114Google Scholar.

5 See Hadith 1812 in Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Qushayrī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, ed. Muḥammad Fū’ād ʻAbd al-Bāqī, Vol. 3, Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, Beirut, p. 1447; Hadith 1065 in A. ibn Ḥanbal, above note 3, Vol. 5, p. 84; Hadith 33650 in ʻAbd Allah ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Shaybah, Al-Kitāb al-Muṣannaf fī al-Aḥādīth wa al-Āthār, ed. Kamāl Yūsuf al-Ḥūt, Vol. 6, Maktabah al-Rushd, Riyadh, 1988, p. 537.

6 See Hadith 2727 in Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl al-Bukhārī, Al-Jāmiʻ al-Ṣaḥīḥ al-Mukhtaṣar, ed. Muṣṭafā Dīb al-Baghā, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, Dār ibn Kathīr, Damascus and Beirut, 1987, p. 1056; al-Zuḥaylī, Wahbah, Mawsūʻah al-Fiqh al-Islāmī wa al-Qaḍāyā al-Muʻāṣirah, Vol. 7, Dār al-Fikr, Damascus, 2010, p. 437Google Scholar.

7 This shows, as referred to above, that in some battles the conflicting parties chose to engage in hostilities outside of towns and populated areas in order to avoid causing incidental harm to civilians and civilian objects. The prime examples here are the battles of Badr and the battle of Uḥud, which both took place outside of town. The battle of Badr took place near a well of the same name in the desert between Mecca and Madina, while the battle of Uḥud took place near the mountain of Uḥud.

8 See W. al-Zuḥaylī, above note 6, Vol. 7, p. 448.

9 Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Doswald-Beck, Louise (eds), Customary International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 1: Rules, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar (ICRC Customary Law Study), available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul.

10 See Fatwa 4263 issued by the current Grand Mufti of Egypt on 24 January 2018, available at: www.dar-alifta.gov.eg/ar/ViewFatwa.aspx?ID=14229&LangID=1.

11 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 105, available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule105.

12 See Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq, Al-Sīrah al-Nabawiyyah, ed. ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Hishām, annotated by Fu’ād ibn ʻAlī Ḥāfiẓ, Vol. 3, Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyyah, Beirut, 2000, pp. 123 ff.; ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Hishām and Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh, trans. Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1955, pp. 450–460; Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī ibn Ḥajar al-ʻAsqalānī, Fatḥ al-Bārī Sharhḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, ed. Muḥib al-Dīn al-Khaṭīb, Vol. 6, Dār al-Maʻrifah, Beirut, p. 283; Hadith 1715 in Muḥammad ibn ʻIsā al-Tirmidhī, Al-Jāmiʻ al-Ṣaḥīh Sunan al-Tirmidhī, ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir et al., Vol. 4, Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, Beirut, p. 214; Aḥmad Abū al-Wafā, Al-Naẓariyyah al-ʻĀmmah lil-Qānūn al-Dawlī al-Insānī fī al-Qānūn al-Dawlī wa fī al-Sharīʻah al-Islāmiyyah, Dār al-Nahḍah al-ʻArabiyyah, Cairo, 2006, p. 297.

13 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 114, available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule114.

14 See Grazyna Baranowska, “Advances and Progress in the Obligation to Return the Remains of Missing and Forcibly Disappeared Persons”, in this issue of the Review.

15 GC I, Art. 16(4); GC II, Art. 19(3); ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 114 (Commentary); AP I, Art. 34(2)(c) requires parties to facilitate the return of personal effects to the home country upon its request, or to the next of kin, unless that country objects, as soon as circumstances and the relations between adverse parties permit.

16 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 114.

17 Qur'an 8:41.

18 W. al-Zuḥaylī, above note 6, Vol. 7, p. 614.

19 See, for example, Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn Ibrāhīm al-Anṣārī, Al-Radd ʻalā Siyar al-Awzāʻī, ed. Abū al-Wafā al-Afghānī, Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyyah, Beirut, p. 48; Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, Al-Siyar al-Kabīr, ed. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munjid, Vol. 4, Maʻhad al-Makhṭūṭāt, Cairo, pp. 1206, 1208, 1239; Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʻī, Al-Umm, 2nd ed., Dār al-Maʻrifah, Beirut, 1973, Vol. 4, pp. 251, 262, and Vol. 7, pp. 336, 345.

20 The instruction of the Second Caliph ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb to his soldiers to “fear God in the farmers” means to beware of deliberately targeting non-combatant farmers because this will incur the punishment of God. Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Rushd, Bidāyah al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyah al-Muqtaṣid, Vol. 1, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut, p. 281; Muwaffaq al-Dīn ‛Abd Allah ibn Aḥmad ibn Qudāmah, Al-Mughnī: Fī Fiqh al-Imām Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal al-Shaybānī, Vol. 9, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut, 1984, p. 251; Peters, Rudolph, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam, Markus Wiener, Princeton, NJ, 1996, p. 35Google Scholar.

21 See Al-Dawoody, Ahmed, The Islamic Law of War: Justifications and Regulations, Palgrave Series in Islamic Theology, Law, and History, Vol. 2, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2011, p. 164CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, Al-Siyar, ed. Majid Khadduri, Al-Dār al-Muttaḥidah, Beirut, 1975, p. 229; M. ibn Qudāmah, above note 20, Vol. 9, p. 11; ʻAbd al-Qādir ʻAwdah, Criminal Law of Islam, trans. Zakir Aijaz, Vol. 1, Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, 2005, p. 119; El Fadl, Khaled Abou, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006, p. 238Google Scholar.

22 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 114.

23 See ‘Abd al-Raḥman ibn Gharmān ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Karimī Al-‘Umarī, Aḥkām al-Shahīd fī al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, Maktabah Dār al-Bayān al-Ḥadīthah, Al-Ṭā’if, 2001, pp. 140–147.

24 Ibid., pp. 148–157.

Ibid

25 Ibid., p. 75.

Ibid

26 See ibid., pp. 168–180.

ibid

27 Ibid., pp. 248–251.

Ibid

28 See, for example, ibid., pp. 254–257; Dieste, Josep Lluis Mateo, Health and Ritual in Morocco: Conceptions of the Body and Healing Practices, trans. Beagles, Martin, Brill, Boston, MA, and Leiden, 2013, p. 159Google Scholar.

ibid

29 ‘A. Al-‘Umarī, above note 23, pp. 259–275.

30 Ibid., pp. 276–289.

Ibid

31 Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Salāmah al-Ṭaḥāwī, Tawḍīḥ ba‘ḍ al-Muṣṭalaḥāt al-‘Ilmiyyah fī Sharḥ al-‘Aqīdah al-Ṭaḥāwiyyah: Wa ma‘ah al-As'ilah wa al-Ajwibah al-Murḍiyah ‘alā Sharḥ al-Ṭaḥāwiyyah, ed. Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥman al-Khamīs, Dār Ilāf, Kuwait, 1999, p. 214. See Afsaruddin, Asma, Striving in the Path of God: Jihād and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013, pp. 102105CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

32 See Rema Rahman, “Who, What, Why: What Are the Burial Customs in Islam?”, BBC News, 25 October 2011, available at: www.bbc.com/news/magazine-15444275.

33 ʻA. ibn Ḥazm, above note 3, Vol. 5, p. 117.

34 Mālik ibn Anas, Al-Muwaṭṭa’, ed. Muḥammad Fū’ād ʻAbd al-Bāqī, Vol. 2, Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, Beirut, 1985, p. 448.

35 See W. al-Zuḥaylī, above note 6, Vol. 7, p. 445; ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar ibn Muhammed ibn al-Saḥaybānī, Aḥkām al-Maqābir fī al-Sharī‘ah, Dār ibn al-Jawzī, Al-Damamn, 2005, p. 233.

36 See Hadith 26404 in A. ibn Ḥanbal, above note 3, Vol. 6, p. 276; Muhammed ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Tarīkh al-Ṭabarī, Vol. 2, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, p. 37; W. al-Zuḥaylī, above note 6, Vol. 7, pp. 445 ff.; ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥabīb al-Māwardī, Kitāb al-Aḥkām al-Sulṭāniyyah wa al-Wilāyāt al-Dīniyyah, Vol. 1, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1985, p. 57Google Scholar; ʻA. ibn Ḥazm, above note 3, p. Vol. 1, p. 124.

37 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 114.

38 Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn al-Ikhwah, M‘ālim al-Qurbah fī Ṭalab al-Ḥisbah, eds Muḥammad Maḥmūd Sha‘bān and Ṣiddīq Aḥmad ‘Isā al-Muṭī‘ī, Al-Hay'ah al-‘Āmmah lil-Kitāb, Cairo, p. 106; ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 218; Fatwa 4263, issued by the current Grand Mufti of Egypt on 24 January 2018, available at: www.dar-alifta.gov.eg/ar/ViewFatwa.aspx?ID=14229&LangID=1.

39 M. ibn al-Ikhwah, above note 38, p. 106. See also ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 223.

40 ‘A. Al-‘Umarī, above note 23, pp. 292 ff.; ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, pp. 221–224.

41 See, for example, ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, pp. 147–212.

43 ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 231.

44 Ibid., p. 229.

Ibid

45 Ibid., p. 236.

Ibid

46 M. ibn Anas, Al-Muwaṭṭa’, above note 34, Vol. 1, p. 241.

47 See Hadith 1250 in M. al-Bukhārī, above note 6, Vol. 1, p. 441; Hadith 70 in Al-Ja‘d, ‘Alī ibn, Musnad ibn Al-Ja‘d, ed. Ḥaydar, ‘Āmir Aḥmad, Vol. 1, Mu'assasah Nādir, Beirut, 1990, p. 27Google Scholar.

48 Al-Dāraqutnī, ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar, Sunan al-Dāraqutnī, eds al-Arna’ūṭ, Shu‘aīb, Shalabī, Ḥassan ‘Abd al-Mun‘im and al-Laḥām, Sa‘id, Vol. 5, Mu'assasah al-Risālah, Beirut, 2004, p. 204Google Scholar.

49 ICRC Customary Law Study, above note 9, Rule 112 (emphasis added). See also GC I, Art 15(1); GC II, Art. 18(1); AP I, Art. 33(4); AP II, Art. 8.

50 ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, pp. 238 ff. On the use of the medical profession in Islamic corporal punishment, see Al-Dawoody, Ahmed, “Use of the Medical Profession in Torture and Punishment”, in Shabana, Ayman (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Islamic Bioethics, Oxford University Press, New York, forthcoming 2018Google Scholar, available at: www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t343/e0259.

51 Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, Al-Mawsū‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyyah, Vol. 21, Kuwait, 2001, p. 19.

52 Ibid.

Ibid

53 Ibid., p. 21.

Ibid

54 See Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥassan al-Shaybānī, Sharḥ Kitāb al-Siyar al-Kabīr, ed. Abī Abdullah Muḥammad Ḥassan Muḥammad Hassan Ismāʻil al-Shafiʻī, commentary by Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Sarakhsī, Vol. 1, Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyyah, Beirut, 1997, p. 79.

55 M. ibn Anas, Al-Muwaṭṭa’, above note 34, Vol. 2, p. 448.

56 See Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Sahl al-Sarakhsī, Kitāb al-Mabsūt, Dār al-Maʻrifah, Beirut, Vol. 9, pp. 135, 196, Vol. 10, pp. 129, 131, Vol. 16, p. 145, and Vol. 26, p. 175.

57 Quoted in ʻA. Ṣaqr, above note 2, p. 57.

58 Ashoor, Yadh Ben, Islam and International Humanitarian Law, ICRC, 1980, p. 7Google Scholar; Zayd ibn ʻAbd al-Karīm al-Zayd, Muqaddimah fī al-Qānūn al-Dawlī al-Insānī fī al-Islām, ICRC, 2004, p. 48.

59 See Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad al-Shawkānī, Nayl al-Awṭār: Min Aḥādīth Sayyid al-Khyār Sharḥ Muntaqā al-Akhbār, Vol. 8, Dār al-Jīl, Beirut, 1973, p. 74Google Scholar; Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī ibn Muḥammad al-Shawkānī, Al-Sayl al-Jarrār al-Mutadaffiq ʻalā Ḥadā’iq al-Azhār, ed. Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Zāyid, Vol. 4, Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyyah, Beirut, 1984, p. 568.

60 See, for example, Fatwa 1896, issued by Dar al-Ifta of Egypt on 26 June 2001, available at: www.dar-alifta.gov.eg/ar/ViewFatwa.aspx?sec=fatwa&ID=11896; Fatwa 17513 issued by the General Presidency of Scholarly Research and Ifta in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, available at: https://tinyurl.com/ycqsxzup; Fatwa issued by the Islamic High Council of Australia, available at: https://tinyurl.com/y9q934h7.

63 See Hadith 1252 in M. al-Bukhārī, above note 6, Vol. 1, p. 442; ʻA. ibn Ḥazm, above note 3, p. Vol. 5, p. 154; M. Al-Nawawī, above note 3, Vol. 5, p. 230; Muḥammad al-Khatīb al-Shirbīnī, Mughnī al-Muḥtāj ilā Maʻrifah Maʻānī Alfāẓ al-Minhāj, Vol. 1, Dār al-Fikr, Beirut, p. 340.

64 See A. al-ʻAsqalānī, above note 12, Vol. 3, p. 184; Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Raḥman ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥīm al-Mubarkāfūrī, Tuḥfah al-Aḥwadhī bi-Sharḥ Jāmiʻ al-Tirmidhī, Vol. 4, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, p. 82.

65 See Fatwa 66120 issued by the Fatwa Centre affiliated to the Qatari Ministry of Endowments (Awqaf) and Religious Affairs, available at: http://fatwa.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=66120.

66 See al-Mināwī, ‘Abd al-Ra’ūūf, Fayḍ al-Qadīr Sharḥ al-Jāmi‘ al-Ṣaghīr, Al-Maktabah al-Tujāriyyah al-Kubrā, Vol. 3, Cairo, 1937, p. 310Google Scholar.

67 See Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, above note 51, Vol. 40, p. 18.

68 See Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Ḥamdūn, Al-Tadhkirah al-Ḥamduniyyah, ed. ‘Abbās, Iḥsān and ‘Abbās, Bakr, Vol. 5, Dār Ṣādir, Beirut, 1996, p. 214Google Scholar.

69 See Kuwaiti Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, above note 51, Vol. 40, p. 25.

70 See Hadith 781 in Aḥmad ibn Shu‘ayb al-Nasā’ī, Sunan al-Nasā’ī al-Kubrā, ed. al-Bindarī, ‘Abd al-Ghaffār Sulaymān and Sayyid Kasrawī Ḥasan, Vol. 1, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1991, p. 259Google Scholar.

71 See Aḥmed ibn al-Ḥussein ibn ʻAli al-Bayhaqī, Sunan al-Bayhaqī al-Kubrā, ed. ‘Aṭṭā, Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Qādir, Vol. 4, Dār al-Bāz, Mecca, 1994, p. 58Google Scholar; ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 494.

72 See Rispler-Chaim, Vardit, “The Ethics of Postmortem Examination in Contemporary Islam”, Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1993, p. 166CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

73 Ibid.

Ibid

74 al-Ghazālī, Muḥammad, Al-Waṣīṭ fī al-Madhhab, eds Ibrāhīm, Aḥmad Maḥmūd and Tāmir, Muḥammad Muḥammad, Vol. 2, Dār al-Salām, Cairo, 1997, p. 390Google Scholar; M. ibn al-Ikhwah, above note 38, p. 106. It is worth adding here that the jurists Ashhab and Saḥnūn, from the Māliki school of law, prohibit performing the funeral prayer at the grave: see ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 350.

75 Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammār Shurunbulālī, Kitāb nūr al-Iḍāḥ wa Najāt al-Arwāḥ, Dār al-Ḥikmah, Damascus, 1985, p. 98Google Scholar.

76 See Hadith 3088 in Abū Dāwūd, above note 3, Vol. 3, p. 181.

77 See, for example, M. al-Ghazālī, above note 74, Vol. 2, p. 390; Ḥ. Shurunbulālī, Kitāb nūr al-Iḍāḥ, above note 75, p. 98; M. ibn al-Ikhwah, above note 38, p. 106.

78 ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 492.

79 Ibid., p. 493.

Ibid

80 See Mohammed, Madadin and Kharoshah, Magdy A., “Autopsy in Islam and Current Practice in Arab Muslim Countries”, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Vol. 23, March 2014, p. 81CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

81 Sheikh, Aziz, “Death and Dying: A Muslim Perspective”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 91, March 1998, p. 139CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

83 See: Martin Beckford, “Muslims and Jews to Be Allowed to Have Different Post-Mortems”, The Telegraph, 21 April 2009, available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/5195466/Muslims-and-Jews-to-be-allowed-to-have-different-post-mortems.html; Paul Britton, “Body Scans Instead of Post Mortems”, Manchester Evening News, 18 April 2010, available at: www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/body-scans-instead-of-post-mortems-955338.

84 See M. Mohammed and M. Kharoshah, above note 80, p. 80.

85 See Roni Caryn Rabin, “Respecting Muslim Patients’ Needs”, New York Times, 1 November 2010, available at: www.nytimes.com/2010/11/01/health/01patients.html.

86 For example, the Islamic Code of Medical Ethics, promulgated by the First International Conference on Islamic Medicine in Kuwait in 1981; the Code of Ethics of the Medical Profession in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; and the Code of Ethics of the Medical Profession in Egypt.

87 See Hadith 5355 in M. al-Bukhārī, above note 6, Vol. 5, p. 2151.

88 al-Islāmī, Majma‘ al-Fiqh, “Qarār Raqam: 85/12/d8 bi-Sha'n Mudāwah al-Rajul lil-Mar'ah”, Majalah Majma‘ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1994, p. 412Google Scholar.

89 See al-Jaffāl, ‘Alī Dawūd, “Mudāwah al-Rajul lil-Mar'ah wa al-Mar'ah lil-Rajul”, Majalah Majma‘ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1994, p. 49Google Scholar.

90 Ibid.

Ibid

91 A. Al-Dawoody, above note 50; see also: www.fatawah.net/Fatawah/434.aspx.

92 Majma‘ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, above note 88, p. 412.

93 R. C. Rabin, above note 85.

94 Ibid.

Ibid

95 Muḥammad al-‘Arabī al-Qarawī, Al-Khulāṣah al-Fiqhiyyah ‘alā Madhhab al-Sādah al-Mālikiyyah, Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, p. 157; ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 43; www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2189/.

96 While some sources say that he died in 663–4, other sources say that he died in 671.

97 See Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d, Al-Ṭabaqāt al-Kubrā, Vol. 3, Dār Ṣādr, Beirut, p. 507; M. Al-Nawawī, above note 3, Vol. 5, p. 244; ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, p. 43.

98 ‘A. ibn al-Saḥaybānī, above note 35, pp. 43–45.

100 See, e.g., Ian Black and Brian Whitaker, “Sea Burial of Osama bin Laden Breaks Sharia Law, Say Muslim Scholars”, The Guardian, 2 May 2011, available at: www.theguardian.com/world/2011/may/02/sea-burial-osama-bin-laden.

101 See Lusted, Marcia Amidon, The Capture and Killing of Osama Bin Laden, ABDO Publishing, Edina, MN, 2012, p. 81Google Scholar.

102 Ibid.

Ibid

103 Melzer, Nils, International Humanitarian Law: A Comprehensive Introduction, coordinated by Etienne Kuster, ICRC, Geneva, 2016, p. 17Google Scholar.

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