The first patient described by Alzheimer in 1907 had both progressive cognitive deterioration and prominent comorbid signs and symptoms of psychosis and agitation (Alzheimer, 1907, 1987). In this editorial, we use “psychosis” to denote delusions and hallucinations and “agitation” to denote irritability, aggression, pressured motor activity, and active resistance to necessary care. Although advances have been made in the treatment of these non-cognitive symptoms, these psychosis and agitation symptoms continued to be burdensome and costly for dementia patients, caregivers, and society. Among the pharmacologic treatments available for psychosis and agitation, antipsychotic drugs are the drug class most consistently demonstrated effective for psychosis and agitation in dementia (Lyketsos et al., 2006; APA Work Group on Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias et al., 2007). These are widely prescribed for these behavioral problems, but their use remains controversial and their mechanism of action unclear.