Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-xm8r8 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-15T20:32:13.009Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale in a sample of German dementia patients and their caregivers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 July 2017

Friederike Deeken*
Affiliation:
Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Andreas Häusler
Affiliation:
Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Johanna Nordheim
Affiliation:
Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science, Berlin, Germany
Michael Rapp
Affiliation:
Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Nina Knoll
Affiliation:
Department of Education and Psychology, Division Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Nina Rieckmann
Affiliation:
Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Public Health, Berlin, Germany
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Friederike Deeken, M.Sc.-Psych., Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany. Phone: +49 331 977 4185; Fax: +49 331 977. Email: fdeeken@uni-potsdam.de.

Abstract

Background:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a sample of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers.

Methods:

We investigated the reliability and validity of the 14-item PSS in a sample of 80 couples, each including one spouse who had been diagnosed with mild to moderate dementia (mean age 75.55, SD = 5.85, 38.7% female) and one spousal caregiver (mean age 73.06, SD = 6.75, 61.3% female). We also examined the factor structure and sensitivity of the scale with regard to gender differences.

Results:

Exploratory factor analysis of the PSS revealed a two-factor solution for the scale; the first factor reflected general stress while the second factor consisted of items reflecting the perceived ability to cope with stressors. A confirmatory factor analysis verified that the data were a better fit for the two-factor model than a one-factor model. The two factors of the PSS showed good reliability for patients as well as for caregivers ranging between α = 0.73 and α = 0.82. Perceived stress was significantly positively correlated with depressive symptomatology in both caregivers and patients. Mean PSS scores did not significantly differ between male and female patients nor did they differ between male and female caregivers.

Conclusion:

The present data indicate that the PSS provides a reliable and valid measure of perceived stress in dementia patients and their caregivers.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Almadi, T., Cathers, I., Hamdan Mansour, A. and Chow, C. (2012). An Arabic version of the perceived stress scale: translation and validation study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49, 8489. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.07.012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alzheimer´s Disease International. (2015). World Alzheimer Report, The Global Impact of Dementia; An Analysis Of Prevalence, Incidence, Cost and Trends. Available at: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2015.pdf; last accessed: 23 November 2016.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edn, Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
Andreou, E. et al. (2011). Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity study in Greece. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 32873298. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083287 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbuckle, J. L. (2006). Amos (Version 7.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago: SPSS.Google Scholar
Arsenault-Lapierre, G., Whitehead, V., Lupien, S. and Chertkow, H. (2012). Effects of anosognosia on perceived stress and cortisol levels in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2012. DOI: 10.1155/2012/209570 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartlett, M. (1954). A note on multiplying factors for various chi squared approximations. Journal of the Royal Society Series B, 16, 296298.Google Scholar
Bauer, M. E., Vedhara, K., Perks, P., Wilcock, G. K., Lightman, S. and Shanks, N. (2000). Chronic stress in caregivers of dementia patients is associated with reduced lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 103, 8492. DOI: 10.1016/s0165-5728(99)00228-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertrand, R., Fredman, L. and Saczynski, J. (2006). Are all caregivers created equal? stress in caregivers to adults with and without dementia. Journal of Aging and Health, 18, 534551. DOI: 10.1177/0898264306289620 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brodaty, H., Green, A. and Koschera, A. (2003). Meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 657664. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0579.2003.00210.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brown, M. W. and Cudeck, R. (1989). Single sample cross-validation indices for covariance structures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 24, 445455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, M. W. and Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In Bollen, K. A. and Long, J. S. (eds.), Evaluating Structural Models. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Cattell, R. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245276. DOI: 10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385396. DOI: 10.2307/2136404 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, S. and Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample in the United States. In Spacapan, S. and Oskamp, S. (eds), The Social Psychology of Health. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
Eklund, M., Bäckström, M., and Tuvesson, H. (2014). Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Swedish version of the perceived stress scale. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 68, 494499.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ezzati, A., Jiang, J., Katz, M., Sliwinski, M., Zimmermann, M. and Lipton, R. (2014). Validation of the perceived stress scale in a community sample of older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29, 645652. DOI: 10.1002/gps.4049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fabrigar, L., MacCallum, R., Wegener, D. T. and Strhan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-Mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Häusler, A., Krause-Köhler, K., Niemann-Mirmehdi, M., Nordheim, J. and Rapp, A. M. (2014). Psychosocial therapy at an early stage of dementia: the DYADEM program [Psychosoziale Therapie bei beginnender Demenz. Das DYADEM-Unterstützungsprogramm für Menschen mit Demenz und ihre Partner.]. Frankfurt: Marbuse.Google Scholar
Hewitt, P., Flett, G. and Mosher, S. (1992). The perceived stress scale: factor structure and relation to depression symptoms in a psychiatric sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, 247257. DOI: 10.1007/bf00962631 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, L. T. and Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jerrom, B., Mian, I., Rukanyake, N. and Prothero, D. (1993). Stress on relative caregivers of dementia sufferers, and predictors of the breakdown of community care. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 331337. DOI: 10.1002/gps.930080409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 3136. DOI: 10.1007/bf02291575 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalaria, R. N. et al. (2008). Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in developing countries: prevalence, management, and risk factors. The Lancet Neurology, 7, 812826.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lazarus, R. (1990). Theory-based stress measurement. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 313. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli0101_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazarus, R. and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer Pub. Co. Google Scholar
McGivney, S., Mulvihill, M. and Taylor, B. (1994). Validating the GDS depression screen in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 490492. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1994.tb04969.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKhann, G. et al. (2011). The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the national institute on aging and the Alzheimer's association workgroup. Alzheimer´s & Dementia, 7, 263269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mimura, C. and Griffiths, P. (2004). A Japanese version of the perceived stress scale: translation and preliminary test. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41, 379385. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2003.10.009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patten, E. L. (2014). Concordance in Psychological Distress Between People With Dementia and Caregivers. Doctoral dissertation, UCL (University College London).Google Scholar
Ramírez, M. and Hernández, R. (2007). Factor structure of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a sample from Mexico. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10, 199206. DOI: 10.1017/s1138741600006466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Remor, E. (2006). Psychometric properties of a European Spanish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 8693. DOI: 10.1017/s1138741600006004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. and Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: test of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research - Online, 8, 2374.Google Scholar
Sheikh, J. and Yesavage, J. (1986). Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 165173.Google Scholar
Smith, T. (2004). Developing and evaluating cross-national survey instruments. In Presser, S. et al. (eds.), Methods for Testing and Evaluating Survey questionnaires. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 431452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uitenbroek, D. (1997). Simple statistical correlation analysis online. Quantitativeskills.com. Available at: http://www.quantitativeskills.com/sisa/statistics/correl.htm; last accessed 26 May 2015.Google Scholar
Waldemar, G. et al. (2007). Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline. European Journal of Neurology, 14, e1e26. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01605.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yesavage, J. et al. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 3749. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Deeken supplementary material

Appendix A

Download Deeken supplementary material(File)
File 18 KB