Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-n6p7q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-22T16:51:08.772Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 September 2016

Laura Gallego-Alberto*
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Andrés Losada
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
María Márquez-González
Affiliation:
Biological and Health Psychology Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Rosa Romero-Moreno
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Carlos Vara
Affiliation:
Biological and Health Psychology Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Laura Gallego-Alberto, Departamental II, Av. Atenas s/n., 28922, Alcorcón Madrid, Spain. Phone: +34 914 888 912. Email: laura.gallegoalberto@urjc.es.

Abstract

Background:

Caregivers’ commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers’ well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers’ guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings.

Method:

Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers’ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt.

Results:

In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers’ guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance.

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Alzheimer's Association. (2013). 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9, 208245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ankri, J., Andrieu, S., Beaufils, B., Grand, A. and Henrard, J. C. (2005). Beyond the global score of the Zarit Burden Interview: useful dimensions for clinicians. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 254260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumeister, R. F., Stillwell, A. M. and Heatherton, T. F. (1994). Guilt: an interpersonal approach. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 243267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernard, L. L. and Guarnaccia, C. A. (2003). Two models of caregiver strain and bereavement adjustment: a comparison of husband and daughter caregivers of breast cancer hospice patients. The Gerontologist, 43, 808816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dilworth-Anderson, P., Williams, I. C. and Gibson, B. E. (2002). Issues of race, ethnicity, and culture in caregiving research a 20-year review (1980–2000). The Gerontologist, 42, 237272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonyea, J. G., Paris, R. and Saxe Zerden, L. (2008). Adult daughters and aging mothers: the role of guilt in the experience of caregiver burden. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 559567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D. and Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Knight, B. G. and Sayegh, P. (2010). Cultural values and caregiving: the updated sociocultural stress and coping model. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 513. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kugler, K. and Jones, W. H. (1992). On conceptualizing and assessing guilt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 318327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lai, D. W. (2010). Filial piety, caregiving appraisal, and caregiving burden. Research on Aging, 32 (2), 200223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Losada, A., Márquez-González, M., Peñacoba, C. and Romero-Moreno, R. (2010a). Development and validation of the caregiver guilt questionnaire. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 650660.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losada, A. et al. (2010b). Leisure and distress in caregivers for elderly patients. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 50, 347350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losada, A. et al. (2015). Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for dementia family caregivers with significant depressive symptoms: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 760772.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losada, A. et al. (2006). Cross-cultural study comparing the association of familism with burden and depressive symptoms in two samples of Hispanic dementia caregivers. Aging and Mental Health, 10, 6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lund, D. A. et al. (2014). Time for living and caring: an intervention to make respite more effective for caregivers. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 79, 157178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahoney, F. I. (1965). Functional evaluation: the Barthel index. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 6165.Google ScholarPubMed
Márquez-González, M., Romero-Moreno, R. and Losada, A. (2010). Caregiving issues in a therapeutic context: new insights from the acceptance and commitment therapy approach. In Pachana, N. A., Laidlaw, K. and Knight, B. G. (eds.), Casebook of Clinical Geropsychology: International Perspectives on Practice (pp. 3353). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Y., Gilbert, P., McEwan, K. and Irons, C. (2006). The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health, 10, 101106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mausbach, B. T. et al. (2010). Association between chronic caregiving stress and impaired endothelial function in the elderly. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 55, 25992606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCracken, L. M. and Yang, S. (2006). The role of values in a contextual cognitive-behavioral approach to chronic pain. Pain, 123, 137145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nogales-González, C., Losada, A. and Romero-Moreno, R. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the revised memory and behavior problems checklist. International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 683692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Páez-Blarrina, M., Gutiérrez-Martínez, O., Valdivia-Salas, S. and Luciano-Soriano, C. (2006). ACT and the importance of personal values in the context of psychological therapy. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 6, 120.Google Scholar
Pearlin, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Semple, S. J. and Skaff, M. M. (1990). Caregiving and the stress process: an overview of concepts and their measures. The Gerontologist, 30, 583594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinquart, M. and Sörensen, S. (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18, 250267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J. and Crook, T. (1982). The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 11361139.Google ScholarPubMed
Roach, L., Laidlaw, K., Gillanders, D. and Quinn, K. (2013). Validation of the caregiver guilt questionnaire (CGQ) in a sample of British dementia caregivers. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 20012010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romero-Moreno, R., Gallego-Alberto, L., Márquez-González, M. and Losada, A. (2016). Psychometric properties of the valued living questionnaire adapted to dementia caregiving. Aging and Mental Health. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1191055.Google ScholarPubMed
Romero-Moreno, R. et al. (2014). Leisure, gender, and kinship in dementia caregiving: psychological vulnerability of caregiving daughters with feelings of guilt. The Journals of Gerontology.Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69, 502513. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbt027.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romero-Moreno, R., Márquez-González, M., Losada, A. and López, J. (2011). Motives for caring: relationship to stress and coping dimensions. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 573582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosa, E., Lussignoli, G., Sabbatini, F., Chiappa, A., Di Cesare, S., Lamanna, L. and Zanetti, O. (2010). Needs of caregivers of the patients with dementia. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 51, 5458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sayegh, P. and Knight, B. G. (2013). Cross-cultural differences in dementia: the sociocultural health belief model. International Psychogeriatrics, 25, 517530.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smout, M., Davies, M., Burns, N. and Christie, A. (2014). Development of the valuing questionnaire (VQ). Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3, 164172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spillers, R. L., Wellisch, D. K., Kim, Y., Matthews, A. and Baker, F. (2008). Family caregivers and guilt in the context of cancer care. Psychosomatics, 49, 511519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teri, L., Truax, P., Logsdon, R., Uomoto, J., Zarit, S. and Vitaliano, P. P. (1992). Assessment of behavioral problems in dementia: the revised memory and behavior problems checklist. Psychology and Aging, 7, 622631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, L. W., Solano, N., Kinoshita, L., Coon, D. W., Mausbach, B. and Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2002). Pleasurable activities and mood: differences between Latin and Caucasian dementia family caregivers. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 8, 211224.Google Scholar
Trindade, I. A., Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J. and Nooren, L. (2015). Clarity of personal values and committed action: development of a shorter engaged living scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 18.Google Scholar
Vitaliano, P. P., Zhang, J. and Scanlan, J. M. (2003). Is caregiving hazardous to one's physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 946972.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wetterneck, C. T., Lee, E. B., Smith, A. H. and Hart, J. M. (2013). Courage, self-compassion, and values in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 2, 6873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, K. G., Sandoz, E. K., Kitchens, J. and Roberts, M. (2010). The valued living questionnaire: defining and measuring valued action within a behavioral framework. The Psychological Record, 60, 249272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You, S. Y. and Tak, Y. R. (2014). Feelings of guilt and depression in family caregivers after nursing home placement of older adults. Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing, 16, 276287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar