Agricultural treatments mainly against cotton and rice pests put a considerable insecticide pressure on larvae and sometimes adults of several vector species. Resistances to compounds which had never been used for public health, but were currently employed in agriculture were observed among vectors. It was also noticed that resistance level in some vector species was linked to the quantity of the compound used in the same area against crop pests.
Resistance in Anopheles gambiae in Africa, in An. albimanus in Central America, in An. culicifacies and An. aconitus in South East Asia, in An. sacharovi in Turkey, in Culex tritaeniorhynchus in the Far East as well as the DDT resistance in Simulium damnosum in West Africa, seem to be associated with the agricultural practices.
On the other hand, resistance did not develop in species which, due to their ecology, were not in contact with agricultural insecticide even in areas where DDT was applied for more than 20 years in house spraying. This is the case of An. dirus and An. minimus in Thailand and An. darlingi South America.
However several important factors like Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, have developed resistance for which agricultural treatments cannot be held responsible. It would be worth saying that the rise in malaria in certain countries, such as India, is only due to the increase of insecticide in agriculture after the “green revolution”.