To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies conducted from 1969 to 2000 on termite ecology and biology in Senegal revealed high termite diversity and an influence of climate and soil conditions on termite group distribution. Sixty-four termite species were recorded. Some were specific to ecologically similar zones while others were widely distributed. Some species, known to inhabit wet zones, were found in semi-arid zones where relic forest vegetation still exists. Nioro, in the central part of the country, seems to be the buffer zone between species to the north and south of Senegal. In Ferlo, an arid zone, Macrotermes species was in regression and the subsisting colonies tended to establish in lowlands with a long humidity period and high vegetation density. The study also focused on termite damage in different agroecosystems. Odontotermes, Microtermes and Psammotermes spp. were the main pests on annual crops and vegetables. Microtermes, Amitermes and Microcerotermes spp. were found attacking young trees, thus affecting reforestation programmes in Senegal.
Genetic and biological implications from interbreeding the Ghanaian okra and cassava biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), reared on eggplant, were studied in reciprocal crossing plans and crosses compared with parental generations using RAPD–PCR. Interbreeding did not affect fecundity of mated females and survival of F1 progeny. However, the sex ratio of the hybrid progeny was significantly male dominated (by 70% males) compared to purebred progeny of each biotype (>60% females) (P<0.01). Each biotype was characterized by its own RAPD profiles. Hybrid females had one locus identical to that of both parents, while the males resembled the mother biotype at two loci. The F1 females were oviposited normally and there was a possible restricted gene flow between insects from the two biotypes, sharing the same host plant. However, the biological isolation seems to buttress ecological isolation in nature, hence maintaining the genetic and biological identity of sympatric populations in both biotypes.
Three species of fruit fly parasitoids, Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti), Psyttalia cosyrae (Wilkinson) and Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were reared on different host larvae to determine the effects of host species, size and colour on parasitoid development. Ovipositor, ovipositor sheath and hind tibia lengths were found to be different for progenies from preferred and non-preferred host larvae. Ratios of ovipositor–tibia and ovipositor sheath–tibia showed no difference when P. concolor was reared on a bigger host (Ceratitis cosyra) (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae), whereas rearing P. cosyrae on a smaller host (C. capitata) (Wiedemann) showed significant differences. Comparison of the linear measurements, ratios and number of flagellomeres of parasitoids reared on preferred hosts, separated the species into their natural groupings. When reared on a different-coloured host, P. lounsburyi lost its dark markings but other characters remained unchanged. Morphometric analysis also indicated differences between parasitoids reared on preferred host larvae and those reared on non-preferred host larvae. Rearing parasitoids on larvae other than their preferred hosts resulted in colour and size changes, and thus, these characters alone were not reliable for the identification of parasitoids. This is especially important in post-release sampling surveys to ascertain establishment of the parasitoids in new environments where they may adapt to new host species.
The effects on the reproductive responses and the offspring fitness in monogamous and promiscuous females of the seven-spotted ladybird Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus were studied. Reproductive responses were higher in monogamous and promiscuous females with unlimited mating than those subjected to limited mating. Monogamous females with unlimited mating recorded longer oviposition period and higher fecundity than those subjected to limited mating. Promiscuous females with multiple mating recorded the longest oviposition period, the highest fecundity and percentage egg viability (short-term benefits), and the shortest developmental period, maximum larval survival and adult emergence (long-term benefits).
Little is known about phase polymorphism in the red locust, Nomadacris septemfasciata (Serville) in Madagascar, despite its economic importance. Only solitary and transiens forms have been reported from the island earlier, but not the gregarious form. Important recent outbreaks have allowed for the studying of the phase polymorphism under experimental and field conditions. Morphometric differences (pronotum size and shape, and F/C and E/F ratios) were noted among hoppers and adults caged for several generations and at various densities, in a field laboratory. These criteria were later used to study adults collected in different areas between 1996 and 2002, from populations with various densities (<1000 to >25,000 imagos/ha). Morphometric measurements revealed that gregarious red locust populations have existed naturally in Madagascar and that these were erroneously classified as transiens forms. The upper threshold density for the solitary phase was estimated at 5000 adults/ha; beyond this limit, locusts develop either into transiens or into highly gregarious forms. The southern part of the island, known as a red locust outbreak area, has harboured gregarious phases despite previous reports that prevailing ecological conditions are not suitable for its complete phase transformation. Deforestation in the northern part of the island has probably led to new favourable biotopes for serious outbreaks and gregarious populations development.
Indicators of diversity (population density, relative number of species and evenness) in ground beetles (Carabidae) and rove beetles (Staphylinidae) in upland rice fields were assessed between 1995 and 1999 at Garoua in the Benue valley in North Cameroon. A total of 4369 beetles belonging to 45 carabid species and 2109 beetles belonging to 31 staphylinid species were caught in pitfall traps. Among the carabid beetles, five species Scarites (Orientolobus) lucidus strigiceps Quedenfeldt, Chlaeniostenus denticulatus elatus (Erichson), Lissauchenius venator (LaFerté), Pheropsophus marginatus (Dejean) and Abacetus crenulatus Dejean, in decreasing order, were dominant. In the staphylinid group, Paederus sabaeus Erichson was the most common, followed by Stenus ravus Puthz and Stenus (Mendicus) senegalensis Bernhauer. The Shannon–Weiner and evenness indices varied slightly from year to year. Diversity values remained relatively low among the staphylinid beetles, revealing that rice fields were underpopulated by this group of polyphagous predators. The features of predatory soil-surface beetles and the role they play as an IPM component in West African rice ecosystems are discussed.
The sensory receptors on the antennal flagellar segments and on the rostral tip of four adult hemipteran insects were identified and compared using scanning electron microscopy in order to better understand the role of sensillae in the process of host plant selection and the structural adaptations of feeding organs for phytophagy. The species studied are Riptortus pedestris Fabricius (Alydidae), Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabricius) (Lygaeidae), Cyclopelta siccifolia Westwood (Pentatomidae) and Chrysocoris purpurea (Westwood) (Pentatomidae). Differences in the distribution and arrangement of sensory receptors in the hemipteran families were noted, especially in the shape of the antennal apices, which are of taxonomical significance. A large array of trichoid basiconic and coeloconic sensillae is distributed on the antennal surface. Distal antennal segments have more sensillae and more types of sensillae than the proximal segments, indicating their prominent role in host plant surface exploration. There is only a slight variation in the shape of the stylets owing to the similarity in feeding habits. The mandibular tips are straight and sharp and do not contain any hooks or barbs as in carnivorous species.
Mosquito traps known as Mbita traps made from modified bednets according to a design developed in Kenya were compared with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps for their ability to catch anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in several different villages in northern Tanzania. The results confirmed those recently reported in Kenya, that Mbita traps catch significantly fewer mosquitoes than CDC traps. Statistical analysis using a Poisson log linear model with random effects for the trap counts showed that the ratio of the catches with the two types of trap was not consistent in the different villages. Thus, we doubt whether the Mbita trap would be a reliable substitute for CDC traps. In one trial, the catches made at different hours of the night with the two types of trap indicated that in villages where insecticide treated nets (ITNs) had been used for some years, somewhat more of the Anopheles biting occurred early and late in the night, whereas in villages with no history of ITN use, biting was concentrated in the middle of the night. This suggests that behavioural adaptation to avoid contact with ITNs may be beginning to evolve.
The diversity of visitors to flowers of the grass Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ and Evrard is very low in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon. Bees (Hymenoptera) and syrphids (Diptera) were observed gathering pollen, and each insect group had its own strategy depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Syrphids are early-morning flower visitors and take time to feed on wet pollen. They visit flowers from 0630 h when the relative humidity is higher than 80% and temperature lower than 25°C. Bees gather dry pollen from 0930 h when the relative humidity is <50% and temperature>30°C, and carry it to the nests for feeding.
Two isolates of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) from Kenya and South Africa were compared to Gemstar® (a commercial NPV) for their pathogenicity against the first four larval instars of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The larvae were fed on droplets with the three virus products in concentrations of 0 (control), 6×102, 6×103, 6×104 and 6×105 occlusion bodies/μl. The bioassays showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) values of 23 and 631 occlusion bodies for the first and second instars, respectively, were comparable to those of Gemstar®. The LD50 values for the third and fourth instars were 3981 and 39,810 for the Kenyan isolate and 1288 and 25,119 for the South African isolate. There was a linear relationship between the log LD50, the larval age and the lethal time (LT50), which appeared to be dose dependent. This correlation constitutes a useful index for estimating susceptibility of larval populations. The LT50 increased from 2.8 to 11.9 days and 2.8 to 6.8 days, respectively, for the Kenyan and South African isolates, suggesting a slight increase of resistance with age within infected larvae.