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Seasonal abundance, damage, cultural control methods and varietal resistance of the four main pest and disease problems in irrigated maize in southern Mozambique

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

Piet Segeren
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA), Ministry of Agriculture, C.P. 3658, Maputo, Mozambique
Rinie van Den Oever
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA), Ministry of Agriculture, C.P. 3658, Maputo, Mozambique
Wilma Slobbe
Affiliation:
Department of Plant Protection, National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA), Ministry of Agriculture, C.P. 3658, Maputo, Mozambique

Abstract

Crop protection problems of smallholders farming maize in the Chokwe Irrigation Scheme in southern Mozambique were investigated in a long-term field study programme during 1984–1990. Downy mildew, Peronosclerospora sorghi (Weston & Uppal) C.G. Shaw, maize streak virus, stemborers (mainly Chilo partellus Swinhoe) and the multimammate rat (Praomys natalensis Smith) were the most important, with the first three showing highest incidence in the warm rainy season (October-March). Average percentage infestation of maize at 30 days after emergence in four successive rainy seasons were 11% for maize streak virus, 16% for downy mildew and 26% for stemborers. The multimammate rat was most abundant at the beginning of the cool, dry season (April-May). Maize streak virus attacks were aggravated when there was rainfall in the preceding cool, dry season. High rainfall in the early part of the warm season increased the likelihood of outbreaks of the multimammate rat in the subsequent cool season. Early sowing decreased the intensity of downy mildew and stemborers, but not of maize streak virus. In on-farm trials involving varieties with combined tolerance to maize streak virus and downy mildew, ESR-DMR-W from IITA (Nigeria) produced 32% more grain while CW-1, a locally bred improved variety, produced 31% more than the local unimproved variety.

Résumé

Les problèmes de la protection des cultures pour les petits produteurs du maïs dans le Système d'Irrigation de Chokwe dans le sud du Mozambique ont été analisés au cours de la période 1984–1990. Le mildiou (Perenosclerospora sorghi (Weston & Uppal) C.G. Shaw), le virus de la striure du maïs et les foreurs de tiges (surtout Chilo partellus Swinhoe) et le rat multimammaire (Praomys natalensis Smith) étaient les plus importants. Le mildiou, le virus de la striure du maïs et les foreurs de tiges ont tous montré l'incidence la plus elevée pendant la saison pluvieuse chaude. Les taux moyens de plantes infestées à 30 jours après l'émergence au cours de quatre saisons pluvieuses successives étaient de 11 % pour le virus de la striure du maïs, 16% pour le mildiou e 26% pour les foreurs des tiges. Le rat multimammaire etait le plus abundant en Avril-May, au début de la saison sèche froide. Les attaques du virus de la striure du maïs s'étaient aggravées s'il y avait des pluies pendant la précédente saison sèche froide. Des pluies fortes, au début de la saison chaude ont aumenté les probabilités d'invasion des rats multimammaires au cours de la saison froide subséquente. Les semis précoces ont amélioré la lutte contre le mildiou et les foreurs de tiges, mais pas contre le virus de la striure du maïs. Dans les essais en milieu réel avec des varietés à résistance combinée au virus de la striure du maïs et au mildiou, ESR-DMR-W de l'IITA (Nigeria) a produit 32% plus, et CW-1, une varieté sélectionée e localement améliorée, 31% plus que la varieté locale.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 1995

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Seasonal abundance, damage, cultural control methods and varietal resistance of the four main pest and disease problems in irrigated maize in southern Mozambique
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