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A Review of the Introduction and Establishment of Cotesia Flavipes Cameron in East Africa for Biological Control of Cereal Stemborers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

W. A. Overholt
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
A. J. Ngi-Song
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
C. O. Omwega
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
S. W. Kimani-Njogu
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
J. Mbapila
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
M. N. Sallam
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya
V. Ofomata
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an exotic stemborer of cereal crops in Africa which invaded the continent from Asia earlier this century. In addition to Ch. partellus, several indigenous stemborers are found in Africa. In 1991, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of stemborers in Asia, was introduced into Kenya for biological control of Ch. partellus. Laboratory studies revealed that the parasitoid could successfully parasitise not only the target stemborer, but also two native stemborers that occur sympatrically with Ch. partellus in some locations. Interbreeding studies demonstrated the Co. flavipes would mate with a native congener, Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron), but no female offspring resulted from these matings. Investigations on competition between the two Cotesia spp. indicated that when Ch. partellus was the host, Co. flavipes appeared to be a superior parasitoid. Releases of Co. flavipes were made in 1993 in Kenya. Recoveries in 1994,1995 and 1996 demonstrated that the parasitoid was firmly established in two regions of Kenya and in northern Tanzania. Preliminary observations suggest that the parasitoid is causing greater mortality to stemborers in southwestern Kenya than in the coastal area.

Résumé

Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) est un exotique foreur de tiges des cultures céréalières en Afrique qui envahit le continent en provenance d'Asie au début de ce siècle. En plus de Ch. partellus, plusieurs foreurs de tiges sont rencontrés en Afrique. En 1991, Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), un grégaire endoparasitoïde des foreurs de tiges en Asie fut introduit au Kenya pour la lutte biologique contre Ch. partellus. Des études en laboratoire révélèrent que le parasitoïde pouvait parasiter avec succès non seulement les foreurs cibles mais aussi deux foreurs en occurrence sympatrique avec Ch. partellus dans quelques localités. Des études sur élevage mixte ont démontré que Co. flavipes pouvait s'accouplert avec un congénère indigène, Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron), mais ces accouplemets ne donnèrent pas naissance à une progéniture femelle. Les investigations sur la compétition entre les deux espèces de Cotesia montrèrent que lorsque Ch. partellus était l'hôte, Co. flavipes était un parasitoïde supérieur. Des lâchers de Co. flavipes furent effectués en 1993 au Kenya. Les recouvrements de 1994, 1995 et 1996 montrèrent que le parasitoïde s'était fermement établi dans deux régions du Kenya et au nord de la Tanzanie. Des observations préliminaires suggèrent que le parasitoïde cause une plus grande mortalité chez les foreurs de tiges au sud-ouest que dans la région côtière du Kenya.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 1997

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