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Perspectives de gestion biointensive des foreurs des tiges de sorgho en afrique de l'ouest

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

A. Ratnadass
Affiliation:
ICRISAT-CIRAD, Samanko, BP 320 Bamako, Mali, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India
B. Cissé
Affiliation:
ICRISAT-CIRAD, Samanko, BP 320 Bamako, Mali, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India
D. Diarra
Affiliation:
ICRISAT-CIRAD, Samanko, BP 320 Bamako, Mali, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India
L. Mengual
Affiliation:
Projet Pourghère/DNHE/GTZ, BP 134, Bamako, Mali, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India
S.L. Taneja
Affiliation:
Mekins Agritech International (P) Ltd., Mekins House, 6-3-1090/B/2, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India
C.A.T. Thiéro
Affiliation:
ICRISAT-CIRAD, Samanko, BP 320 Bamako, Mali, Raj Bhavan Road, Somjiguda, Hyderabad-500 482, India

Abstract

Studies were conducted from 1993–1995 at Samanko, Mali, on rearing and pheromone trapping of Busseola fusca Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and on the insecticidal effect of extracts of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) on B. fusca and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A technique for mass rearingof B.fusca larvae on a chickpea and sorghum leaf-based meridic diet was developed, requiring about 10 g of diet per larva. An average of 7.3 successive generations were obtained per year. Pupal and larval mortalities were less than 15%. Oviposition was obtained on artificial substrates, with a fecundity of 300–500 eggs per female. Laboratory tests were conducted with diets in which extracts of nuts of J. curcas had been added. A 100% larvicidal effect was obtained with B. fusca and S. calamistis at 0.01% and 1% crude oil concentration respectively, and with 0.025% of the phorbol ester fraction on S. cahmistis. Trapping experiments using traps made of aluminum trays baited with synthetic pheromone showed that B. fusca male moths flights could be satisfactorily monitored. An improvement of traps and/or pheromone effectiveness is, however, necessary before their use as a control method.

Résumé

Des études ont été menées de 1993 à 1995 à Samanko (Mali) sur l'élevage et le piégeage sexuel de Busseola fusca Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), et sur l'effet insecticide d'extraits de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) sur B. fusca et Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Une technique d'élevage des larves de B. fusca a été développée sur milieu méridique à base de pois chiche et feuilles de sorgho. Avec moins de 10 g de milieu par larve, 7,3 généerations annuelles successives furent obtenues. Les taux de mortalité larvaire et nymphale ont été inférieurs à 15%. La fécondité par femelle, avec oviposition sur supports artificiels fut de 300 à 500 oeufs. Des tests sur milieu nutritif artificiel ont montré un effet larvicide de l'huile brute extraite des graines deJ. curcas, aux concentrations de 0,01% et 1% sur respectivement B.fusca et S. calamistis, et de sa fraction esters de phorbol à la concentration de 0,025% sur S. calamistis. Des essais de piégeage sexuel au moyen de capsules de phéromones synthétiques, et de pièges à eau constirués d'assiettes en aluminium ont montré qu'on pouvait suivre de façon satisfaisante les vols de papillons mâles de B. fusca. Une amélioration de leur efficacité est cependant nécessaire avant d'envisager leur utilisation pour la lutte.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 1997

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